Flashcards in Chp3 New Ideas: Enlightenment Deck (23):
What was the catalyst for Revolution in France?
the new ideas from thinkers called “philosophes”
Who were philosophes?
women and men who met to discuss society and politics. They tried to figure out solutions to social problems
What kind of government did the philosophes believe in?
They did not like absolute monarchy and wanted democracy.
Where did the philosophes look to see democracy?
They saw in England and the USA that they had won democracy via revolution
What did the philosophes believe about science?
That scientific reasoning and science could explain the world
What was the importance of Salons?
Women met together in homes to discuss society, government and religion.
Who was Madam Pompadour?
the unofficial wife of Louis XV
Why was Madam Pompadour unusual?
She held salons and protected free thinkers, and promoted the rights of women.
How did philosophes view religion?
They did not like religion
Why did the philosophes call themselves “englightened”?
they were against ideas that were old fashioned or religious
What did Englightened mean?
that science and intelligence were of the highest importance, that all beliefs had to stand up to reason and experiment
What has Isaac Newton discovered in England?
The laws of gravity
What had John Locke written about?
no divine right of kings, all people have rights that should be protected, if a government took advantage of people they should be overthrown
What was Empiricism – (John Locke's idea)
knowledge is only possible through experience of the world, witnessing though your senses, so religious beliefs cannot be proven
Who did the church support?
The ruling classes?
Why did the church support the ruling classes?
Because the divine right of kings implied a God had given them power
How did philosophes view the church and royalty?
The philosophes thought the church and royalty were holding back progress
Who were Rousseau, Voltaire, ad Montesquieu?
philosophes with international reputations
What did Voltaire believe?
-against the church, -for freedom of thought, -ideas accepted by some monarchs, -believe in absolute monarchy, -hated injustice, supersition and bigotry
What did Monesquieu believe?
-rulers should work with elected parliaments, - not well received by monarchs who did not want to share power
What did Rousseau believe?
-society needs a social contract or an agreement to abide by certain rules, -live in harmony with nature, -people have a natural good will, -people should go with what the majority wants
How were philosophes different from the poor?
They were wealthy and fashionable with time to sit in cafes and debate ideas.