Flashcards in Chapter 5 Review Deck (36):
What did metro Tull invent?
Jethro Tull invented the seed drill
What did john Kay invent
John Kay invented the flying shuttle
What did james Hargreaves invent?
He invited the spinning Jenny
What did Newcomen invent?
Newcomen invented a machine that harnessed the power of compressed steam. This machine used steam to pump water out of mines.
What did james watt invent
A new steam engine that worked way better than newcomes invention.
It pumped water out of the mines using steam. He adapted the engine so it could drive machines
He had solved the problem of powering factories
What did Abraham Darby invent?
He invented a process for making better cast iron.
What were the effects of the industrial revolution
New technologies, global warming, ozone depletion, exploitation of earths resources, new forms of farming
Early effects of the industrial revolution
The industrial revolution showed early signs of pollution global warming ozone depletion and exploitation of earths resources
What was the Test act
The test act was an act forbidding anyone except members of the Church of England to uphold political office or entering professions.
They became wealthy and invested in a capital
Stripp farming methods were tossed out and a new form of farming was introduced called the enclosure movement
Commons were sold to rich farmers
What was the seed drill
Was invented by Tull which could be pulled by horses
The seed drill planted seeds in neat rows
It was a faster and much less wasteful method of planting then broadcasting
Laissez-faire what is it? Who benefits?
It meant that business and industry would be as free as possible from government regulations.
This benefited business owners because they could pay their workers as little as they wanted and have as little safety regulations as they wanted
What was the flying shuttle
The flying shuttle was invented by John Kay this device made weaving much faster and allows large looms to operate by only one person
On a small loom a person could throw the shuttle from one hand to another but for a large loom two person were needed.
What was the spinning Jenny
Was an ingenious device driven by a hand cranked wheel, which allowed a spinner to spin off a number of threads at the same time.
One spinner could do the work of several
Who was James macadam
He built roads that would not get muddy
The roads were built of three layers of graded stone, with largest stones on the bottom and fine granite gravel on the surface
What is enclosure
Large fields instead of small strips
The usual energy source was coal because it was cheap.
What was the purpose of a colonie
Colonies were used to import raw materials to the British and then sell back finished products
New breeds of cattle were expensive and produced more meat
New breeds of sheep were expensive and produced thicker wool
New breeds did not catch deserve as easier and were hardier, they were expensive to keep over winter instead of eating them
Upper and middle classes Attitude towards working class
They believed that the working class should work as much as possible. Leisure was bad for the working class they might slip into evil habits like drinking , and gambling
Important textile product in Britain
All cloth was made from animal or plant fibres
Wool from sheep was the most important material for clothing
Where was cotton imported from?
Cotton was imported from other British colonies in the southern United States because
usa had just conquered India and they got coton from there
What was the Townsend crop rotation
There were four crops in rotation
Land was no longer kept fallow to replenish soil
Turnip and clover released nitrogen into soil and was good animal food
What were some poor laws
They were not heavily enforced
Children could not work over 12 hours in cotton mills
Children under 9 could not work in the textile industry "not inforced"
Workers associations legal "begging or trade union"
Crop that failed in Ireland 1845
The potatoes rotted in the fields
Who was protected in factory acts and what was the purpose
They were designed to help the lives of the working people
Children were the first To benefit and then the rest of the working people
Supply and demand
Because the population was growing and their were less farmers the farmers had to figure out a way to increase their food produced significantly
The demand increased and the supply had to increase
The initial responce to unions
They thought that unions were damage the economy and that they would promote evil such as drinking and gambling
How did reformers gather information
They got their information from
Court cases "inquests"
Volunteering at soup kitchen hospitals
Steam engines to power machines
Clearances were a part of the policy for enclosure
They would give the cloggers a little amount of time to sell their animals and furniture before making them leave forever then they would burn down to the ground to prevent the crafters from coming back
What were the advantages to a cottage industry
The cottagers could work at work
They could look after their family
They could work in their own community with support of their friends and relatives
Income benefited the family
Why did the industrial revolution begin in British (5)
It had a good supply of people who were willing to work (labor supply)
The middle class had influenced the government as a result of the glorious revolution
Thanks to the test act some people became rich and invested in capitals which is essential for industrialization
The government i encouraged scientific advancements and inventions
British had a large deposit of raw materials needed in industry
THere was good transportation
A stable and pro business government
Describe four negative conditions that child workers endured (4)
They were exposed to pollution from coal
In textile factories there was fluff in the air a swell as microscopic fibres going deep I tot their lungs
The noise of the looms was often deafening
Many children were beaten
They had to take their wages in food which was low quality food
They were forced to take long overtime shifts
Identity 3 major transportation methods (3)