Vocab Chapter 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Vocab Chapter 1 Deck (63):
1

Anatomist



a dissector of dead bodies

2

Courtier



an attendant at a monarch's court

3

Empire



a group of states or territories controlled by one country

4

Eucharist

the sacrament of the Last Supper in Christian theology

5

Humanism



a system or mode of thought in which interests predominate

6

Lectern

a reading desk

7

Martin Luther



a German religious reformer

8

Philosophy



the pursuit of the principles underlying all knowledge; the pursuit of wisdom

9

Protestant



people who belonged to Christian congregations that separated from the Roman Catholic Church during the reformation

10

Serf



a person attached to a lord's land and required to give services to the lord

11

Tenant



a person who pays rent for the use of land to the landlord

12


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Thatch



a roof made of straw

13

Galileo Galilei



He challenged the beliefs of the Roman Catholic church.

14

Martin Luther



He was a German religious reformer.

15

William Shakespeare

His plays were performed at the globe theatre.

16

Francis Bacon



He developed the scientific method.

17

Roman Catholic



Everyone believed in this religion until 1517, when people began to protest.

18

True or False; The Roman Catholic church believed that the church should not be very wealthy.

False, the Protestants believed that the church should have no things of value, except for the Eucharist cup.

19

Humanism

The religion that believes that human interests are more valuable.

20

Strip Farming

An inefficient method of farming

21

Microscope



This device was used by Anton Van Leeuwenhoek to study cell structures and tree sap.

22

Baby Trot

This device consisted of an axle that pivoted on a large pole.

23

True or False, literature became more popular during the renaissance.

True, with the growth of humanism, people had more interest in literature.

24

Tenet farmers were under the control of a Lord. True or False

of a Lord. True or False

False, tenet farmers began to show up while the system of lords and serfs were being disrupted.

25

Protestants



This religion was created after the 95 theses were nailed to a Roman Catholic church door.

26

Roman Catholic

Everyone believed in this religion until 1517, when people began to protest.

27

The divine right of kings


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The divine right of kings

This was thought of as "god given" and it enabled the king to have special powers, such as law making.

28

True or False, Europe's economy was based largely on agriculture.

True, because of the improvements in agriculture, the economy of Europe was thriving.

29

The Middle class



This was created as the growth of trade and the economy continued.

30

Philosophies



These were made to explain the way that the world functioned, and the meaning of life.

31

True or False; The globe theatre was very tame, with a calm audience.

False, the audience would commonly throw apple cores and other fruits at the performers.

32

Professional Armies



Kings began to pay for these, instead of relying on nobles for the same things.

33

The idea of "Nation"

This surfaced when kings began to appoint average citizens into their governments.

34

Everyday people and jobs

The industrial revolution was targeted towards these things.

35

Andreas Vesalius

This man used the microscope to accurately improve knowledge about the human body.

36

What made books more accessible to the average person?

The Printing Press

37

Specializing

Farmers began to start specializing with crops: only growing one or two crops

38

True or False; The economy of Europe was based largely on the sea,


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True, Sir Walter Raleigh said that whoever controls the sea, controls the riches, and then the world.

39

Renaissance

rebirth of fine arts, sciences, and learning in Europe- the transition between medieval to the modern world

40

Middle Ages



the time period in European history from 500 to 1450 CE

41

Reformation


the religious movement protesting against the Roman Catholic Church to "reform"

42

Martin Luther



leader of the Reformation

43

95 Theses

a documentation written by Martin Luther, listing all the flaws in the Roman Catholic church.

44

Roman Catholic

a branch of Christianity under the hierarchical authority of the pope and based in the Latin language.

45

Pope



the head of the Roman Catholic Church

46


Protestant



a Christian religion founded on the principles of the Reformation, led by Martin Luther.

47

Flaws of the Roman Catholic Church

the pope and officials were too authoritative and hypocritical- established elaborate buildings and decorations (eg. statues of Christ) within the church, and were too wealthy

48

Feudal



a medieval hierarichal society revolving around land being the main source of wealth

49

"Kingly virtues"



almost god-like virtues possessed by the King, implying that he is of far higher status than the people, which leads to the Divine Right of Kings

50

Divine Right of Kings



the belief that a King's powers as a ruler came directly from God, and was God's representative on earth; his actions should not be questions

51

Empire



a group of countries governed under a single authority (ex. the British empire)

52

Three-field system



an agricultural system in which 3 fields are alternating in use, to maximize nutrients in the soil, produce, and efficiency during farming

53

Humanism



a renaissance intellectual movement in which thinkers studied classical texts and focused on human potential and achievements- more weight on regular life, less on religion and God




54

Philosophy



a way of thought about aspects of life

55



a revolutionary invention by Gutenberg, helped spread Humanism, and other philosophical or scientific ideas during the Renaissance period. Encouraged literacy, and education, provided more opportunities for the middle class



a revolutionary invention by Gutenberg, helped spread Humanism, and other philosophical or scientific ideas during the Renaissance period. Encouraged literacy, and education, provided more opportunities for the middle class

56

Scientific Revolution



the quick transformation from religious explanations to logical reasoning through science to explain the mysteries of life

57

Copernicus

1543: developed the theory of which all the planets, including Earth, revolve around the sun

58

Galileo



1632: proved Copernicus's theory, but this discovery conflicted with the religious belief in an Earth-centered universe.

59

Francis Bacon

1620: developed the scientific method

60

Isaac Newton

1660s: developed law of gravity

61

Vesalius



1500s: anatomist who used the microscope to improve knowledge on the human body

62

Brahe



1570s: a Danish astronomer

63

Van Leewenhoek



improved the early microscope

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