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Flashcards in SS9 Final Exam Review Deck (197):
1

French Revolution:

Republic

a country without a monarch

2

French Revolution:

Constitutional Monarchy

a monarchy in which the monarch rules according to the laws and constitution of the nation.

3

French Revolution:

Absolute monarchy

A monarchy where the monarch has total power

4

French Revolution:

Democracy

A country in which the people vote for the government

5

French Revolution:

Bill of Rights

1. People could not avoid laws without the consent of the parliament
2. Petitioning against the kind was illegal
3. There were free elections
4. People of parliament had freedom of speech
5. Bails had to be reasonable
6. Parliament had to be held frequently

6

French Revolution:

Who were the Three Estates

the First Estate (clergy);

the Second Estate (nobility);

the Third Estate (commoners).

The king was considered part of no estate.

7

French Revolution:

18th c France

Peasants, lots of poor. Louis etc super wealthy, not running the country properly, spending like crazy, bankrupting the country.

8

French Revolution:

Inflation

When the price of something skyrockets

9

French Revolution:

Marie Antoinette

-offended many aristocrats
-loved glittering life of court
-she idealized the peasant life
-extravagant and loved fancy things
-spending a large sums of jewels

10

French Revolution:

Enlightenment

-science and human intelligence were important
-if a belief could not stand up to a reason
-if it could not be demonstrated by experiment then it had to be discarded

11

French Revolution:

Voltaire

Voltair is the most famous philosopher
-he was against the church
-many of his ideas were accepted by rulers of other nations
-Believed in absolute monarchy, hated injustice

12

French Revolution:

Rousseau

He believes that society needed a social contract
-an agreement in which everyone agrees to abide by certain rules
-for example each citizen would have to agree to what the majority wanted
-He believed in what he described as natural law
-that everyone is good but modern society corrupted them

13

French Revolution:

Montesquieu

Believed that the ruler had to work with the elected parliament
-his ideas were not so well received by European monarchs who had little interest in sharing powers with the people

14

French Revolution:

National Assembly

After six weeks of no progress The third estate broke off from the other states and created a government known as the National Assembly

Took the tennis court oath which meant they has to stay until a government was formed

The other 2 estates joined

15

French Revolution:

Napoleon and the 1795 Convention

Napoleon was called upon to save the convention from rebellious French citizens,
He ordered cannons to fire grapeshot point-blank into the crowd

16

French Revolution:

Declaration of the Rights of Man

The declaration guaranteed freedom of
-thought
-speech
-religion
-security and
-property and
-put its limits on the power of the government

17

French Revolution:

Executions - France

Guiloteen

18

French Revolution:

What was the response of other Europeans nations to the French Revolution

The other nations did not like that they overthrew the monarchy in France

Other European monarchs tried to support Louis to get him back in power

19

Napoleonic Era:

Napoleon's support from the Italians

Napoleon promised the Italians freedom

He lied and sent his soldiers in to collect treasures and brought them back to Europe making himself wealthy

20

Napoleonic Era:

Civil Code _Napoleon

Napoleonic Code: a new book of law for the nation reflecting the kind of society Napoleon wanted

There was one law for all of Europe

21

Napoleonic Era:

Continental System

The Continental system banned trading with Britain and its colonies such as Canada

22

Napoleonic Era:

Why didn't the continental system work?

It did not work because Europe did not have control of the sea

The Continental system didn't work because it hurt you're just as much as it hurt england

There was illegal trade goods became scarce and expensive smuggling became profitable pirating became encouraged

23

Napoleonic Era:

Who did Napoleon put in charge of conquered territories

His family

24

Napoleonic Era:

How did Napoleon change Europe

Much of Europe was divided into countries and provinces only Britain remained independent

He abolished serfdom and put the old feudal system to rest he also encourage religious tolerance

25

Napoleonic Era:

What is Imperialism

The policy of extending control of a region or region buy one nation imperialism usually involves both economic and political control

26

Napoleonic Era:

What is Patriotism

pride in ones country

27

Napoleonic Era:

What is Nationalism

the belief that ones country is the best country ever.

28

Napoleonic Era:

What is Colonialism

Control of one part of the world by a powerful country often for commercial advantage

29

Napoleonic Era:

Russian Campaign - scorched earth

The Russians were defeated, but refused to surrender.

They did a scorched earth retreat, where they destroyed everything in their wake as they retreated leaving nothing for the advancing army to live off.

30

Napoleonic Era:

Napoleon and Spain

Napoleon's troops were particularly cruel in Spain, and were brutal conquerors not friendly saviours

31

Napoleonic Era:

Waterloo

Napoleon's career was ended with the defeat

32

Napoleonic Era:

Congress of Vienna

The map of Europe was re-drawn at the Congress of Vienna which met for the first time in 1814 which was Napoleon's enemies including Britain Russia Austria and Prussia

33

Industrial Revolution:

Textiles - Britain

Mostly wool from sheep

34

Industrial Revolution:

Test Act

It was passed when anti-catholic fever reached a high point. It forced all people to take a sacrament before taking office.

35

Industrial Revolution:

how did Britain use India

They used India for cotton

36

Industrial Revolution:

Enclosure

Where farm owners would kick their tenants off of their farm to make big field instead of strips

37

Industrial Revolution:

Plant rotation

When there were four crops in rotation 2 were radishes and clover to put nitrogen back into the soil

38

Industrial Revolution:

Laissez-Faire what is it?

economies function most efficiently when unencumbered by government regulation

39

Industrial Revolution:

Laissez-faire who benefits

The factory owners benefit

40

Industrial Revolution:

Coal mining hazzards

Explosions
Lung cancer
Death in accidents

41

Industrial Revolution:

philanthropists

A philanthropist is a person who gives money or gifts to charities, or helps needy people in other ways.

Famous examples Bill & Melinda Gates.

42

Industrial Revolution:

capitalist

Geting a capital is investing in a new company if your company was already doing well

43

Industrial Revolution:

speculator

A speculator is a trader who approaches the financial markets with the intention to make a profit by buying low and selling high (or higher), not necessarily in that order.

The speculator is distinguished from the investor, who approaches the financial markets with the intention of making a return on his capital

44

Industrial Revolution:

supply and demand

when the demand for something is high the price is also high for in the demand for something is low the price is also low

45

Industrial Revolution:

factory labour

people worked hard in factories, under terrible conditions. Many children worked there. There was low pay, no healthcare

46

Industrial Revolution:

factory acts

Factory ask first helped child laborers and then later on Helped all workers

Children under 10 weren't allowed to work more than 12 hour shifts

47

Industrial Revolution:

Irish potato famine

staple food for millions of europeans, all potatoes rotted, loads starved to death

48

Geography:

plate tectonics

to do with the earth's crust, when the plates push together they make mountains

49

Geography:

geography

the study of the land

50

Geography:

topography

the shape of the land

51

Geography:

geology

the study of the earth

52

Geography:

anthropology

the study of people and culture

53

Geography:

climate

the prevailing conditions of temperature and precipitation

54

Geography:

mixed forest

coniferous and deciduous

55

Geography:

subsistence

more than one way of finding food

56

Geography:

agriculture

planting food

57

Early Arrival in Canada:

shamanism

religion of the native people, focus is on connection to nature spirits

58

Early Arrival in Canada:

Inuit-- important land animals

Caribou

59

Early Arrival in Canada:

Iroquois- important crop

corn

60

Early Arrival in Canada:

plains people - important animal

buffalo

61

Early Arrival in Canada:

plateau people - important dietary staple

fish

62

Early Arrival in Canada:

potlatch

The potlatch was a way of distributing wealth and food

They were also a sign of nobility

63

Early Arrival in Canada:

Lief the Lucky

leif the luckys real name was leif erikson. He was a character in viking stories, he was real and theres a viking setlement in newfoundland. L'anse aux meanows

64

Early Arrival in Canada:

John Cabot

looks for japan and china. His ship was called the matthew. First place he found was newfoundland and he found the grand banks "lots of fish"

65

Early Arrival in Canada:

Jacques Cartier

1534 he was looking for the northwest passage, he found prince edward island. He kidnaped two native people.

66

Early Arrival in Canada:

Samuel de Champlain

he was asked to set a permanent colony in canada, the colony became known as acadia.

67

Early Arrival in Canada:

Kirke brothers

formed the Company of Associates and was given patents by Charles 1 to trade and settle in Canada. Became the governor of Newfoundland.

Had run ins with Champlain to get him to give up New France. Finally the French had to leave, but then Kirke was told in 1632 that he had to give it back to the French.

68

Early Arrival in Canada:

North American resources

wood, fish, pelts "beaver",

69

Early Arrival in Canada:

Challenges for Europeans

harsh winters, native people attacking

70

Early Arrival in Canada:

Purpose of the colony for France

to establish a permenant trade settlement, establish rights of the French in the new land -- ownership

71

Early Arrival in Canada:

Champlain's choice of settlement site

champlain picked quebec because he was a soldier and noticed he could only be attacked by one side because of the clifts.

72

Early Arrival in Canada:

Value of beaver pelts

depended on the fashion, thickness of the fur, size of the fur

73

Early Arrival in Canada:

Coureurs de bois

runners of the woods -- the first fur traders from Quebec

74

Early Arrival in Canada:

Missionaries & Jesuits

church people who came to the natives to teach them about European God

75

Early Arrival in Canada:

Mercantilism

getting raw materials for cheap, then sell a finished product, to make profit.

76

Early Arrival in Canada:

Expulsion of the Acadians

originally french then british came along and kicked them all out, made them leave everything behind.

77

Early Arrival in Canada:

Battle of the Plains of Abraham

When the British attacked the french to gain Quebec

78

Early Arrival in Canada:

Hudson's Bay company

Sold furs

79

Early Arrival in Canada:

North West Company

North west company went to the natives and was the rivalry of the hbc

80

Early Arrival in Canada:

Rupert's Land

Rupert's land was all the way and that I had a river draining into the Hudson's Bay

81

Early Arrival in Canada:

Explorers - goals

To find new land

Map the country

New sources of fur

82

Early Arrival in Canada:

Maritime fur trade

The fur trade that was happening outside of central Canada. Used large boats vs over land with canoes

Mostly sold to China and sea otters

83

Early Arrival in Canada:

Captain cook

He was a good British Captain who takes care of the sailors he traveled around the globe and discovered Antarctica and proved the Northwest passage doesn't exist

1778 arrives in Nootka sound on Vancouver Island and trades but the people there for continuing south to Hawaii where he was killed

84

Early Arrival in Canada:

Women of the fur trade

vital role. Country wives, native or metis women, they had social connections which helped with trading. Helped courire de bois with transelating, helped them with food and winter and conoes, without the women they would not survive

85

HBC vs NWC Explorers and Red River:

Lord Selkirk's purpose for the Red River Colony

Lord Selkirk's goal was to settle Scottish people in Canada (esp. on the red river, given to him by HBC)

86

HBC vs NWC Explorers and Red River:


Battle of seven oaks

The pemican war

They cut off the pemican supply

87

American Revolution and War of 1812:

Royal Proclamation of 1774

Issued by the British government
-stopped land speculation
- Native people were happy because it meant that the settlers could no longer go onto their territory

88

American Revolution and War of 1812:

American Protests

The Americans felt they were second class citizens
-the British were taking advantage of their resources by taxing them too much and imposing laws on them without asking them

89

American Revolution and War of 1812:

Stamp Act

In 1765, a stamp had to be purchased and placed on any and all purchases to show that they had paid taxes on the item.
Americans were being taxed without their consent

90

American Revolution and War of 1812:

American victory over the British (Why?)

War lasted for 7 years,
France joined the American side,

91

American Revolution and War of 1812:

Loyalists

one who is faithful to Britain,
about 20% of the Americans,
they were persecuted, homes/farms burned down, many forced to leave and came to Canada.

92

American Revolution and War of 1812:

Constitutional Act of 1791

-United Empire Loyalists wanted their own government in Canada.
-1791 they were given it .
-Created two colonies, Lower (French) and Upper Canada (Eng).
-Upper was up river and closer to the USA.
-BOth had elected government

93

American Revolution and War of 1812:

Indentured servants

a promise to work for a number of years to pay off the cost of the trip to the new world "voluntary slavery"

94

American Revolution and War of 1812:

War of 1812 (Why?)

British North America has only 500,000 inhabitants compared to 8 million Americans, so it was a tasty target for takeover,
Americans thought the British were fighting alongside the Natives against them.
The Americans were also angry about the trade restrictions placed on them after the revolution

95

American Revolution and War of 1812:

War of 1812 - what was the result

Because Napoleon had been defeated, the British were able to send seasoned troops to fight the Americans.

They had the support of the native people.

The people in Upper Canada became more loyal to Canada not the Americans.

The Star Spangled Banner was written after one of the main battles (Plattsburg, Baltimore)

96

American Revolution and War of 1812:

War of 1812 - First nations contribution

General Brock had a good relationship with the Native people which helped him defeat the Americans.

Without Tecumseh & his people there would have been no Canada, but his contributions went forgotten

97

Geography:

What are tectonic plates?

The large plates that make up the earth's surface and move around in continental drift.

98

Geography:

What is subduction?

When one plate goes underneath another plate. We live in a subduction zone.

99

Geography:

What is climate?

the weather in an area, gauged over a period of time so it's the usual weather

100

Geography:

What is Topography?

the arrangement of the natural and artificial physical features of an area.

101

Geography:

What is Vegetation?

the plants that grow in an area

102

Geography:

What is erosion?

the gradual destruction of something, usually by water

103

Geography:

What is glaciation?

the process of being covered by an ice sheet

104

Geography:

What is a mixed forest?

a vegetational transition between coniferous forest and broad- leaved deciduous forest,

105

Geography:

Describe the arctic

-very flat, far north, very cold
-some trees grow on tundra, very small

106

Geography:

What is the difference between folded and volcanic mountains?

Folded Mountains - flat surfaces, such as sedimentary strata, are bent or curved as a result of deformation.

Volcanic Mountains - are mountains that form when molten rock erupts onto the Earth's surface.

107

French Revolution:

What was the Reign of Terror?

when the revolutionaries killed many people by guillotine etc.

108

French Revolution:

Who were the Jacobins?

The Jacobins were the most radical and ruthless of the political groups formed in the wake of the French Revolution

109

French Revolution:

Who/what was the Directory?

The Directory was a five-member committee which governed France from 1795,
it was overthrown by Napoleon Bonaparte

110

French Revolution:

What was the Social Contract?

A book written by Rousseau in 1762
he wondered:
what is the best way to establish a political community in the face of the problems

111

Industrial Revolution:

What were the eight causes of the industrial revolution?

-modern work attitudes , laws to support trade
-education
-a product to sell
-transportation for the product
-large market
-"modern" government
-money
-science improved products

112

Industrial Revolution:

What are commons?

A place in each town where people could let their animals graze. These were taken away forcing people into the towns.

113

Industrial Revolution:

What are colonies and mother countries?

A mother country is the main country like Britain or Spain.
The colonies are countries that have been taken over by the 'mother' country and are exploited for raw materials

114

Industrial Revolution:

What is enclosure?

Farm land was made into large farms, creating businesses rather than farming as a way of life.
Large farms vs small, poor farmers

115

Industrial Revolution:

What is franchise?

the right to vote (but women were not included)

116

Industrial Revolution:

What is a clothier?

a cloth merchant

117

Industrial Revolution:

What was the Factory Act?

In 1833 the Government passed a Factory Act to improve conditions for children working in factories. Young children were working very long hours in workplaces where conditions were often terrible. The basic act was as follows: no child workers under nine years of age.

118

Industrial Revolution:

What are Scottish Clearances?

The removal of highland people to clear the land of people to allow for the introduction of sheep pastures

119

Industrial Revolution:

What were the major inventions?

Jethro Tull - Seed Drill
James Hargreaves - Spinning Jenny (weaving)
John Kay - Flying Shuttle (weaving)
James Watt - Steam Engine

120

Industrial Revolution:

What was the role of children in the Industrial Revolution?

Children were not treated well, overworked, and underpaid for a long time before anyone tried to change things for them. Wages and Hours: Children as young as six years old during the industrial revolution worked hard hours for little or no pay.

121

Industrial Revolution:

What is a cottage industry?

a small industry that is a home based business

122

Industrial Revolution:

What are social classes?

Usually noted in Britain.
Wealthy
Middle Class - medium wealth, business owners
Poor

123

Early Arrival in Canada:

What was the Treaty of Utrecht?

1713 Ended a European battle, but gave Britain territories in Canada and India.

It officially ended the war, but in Canada skirmishes kept going, and didn't really end till after the 7 years war.

124

Early Arrival in Canada:

Who were the Filles du roi?

The King's Girls - orphans sent from France for a new life, given $ to help set up home and marry a man in New France

125

Early Arrival in Canada:

Who was Jean Talon?

the first Intendant of New France
wanted the Filles due Roi to encourage soldiers to settle in New France

126

Early Arrival in Canada:

Who could colonies trade with?

Colonies traded with their mother country. Raw materials from the colonies like furs shipped to England to be made into hats.

127

Early Arrival in Canada:

What was the Seigneurial system and the Seigneur's role?

The Seigneurs were like the lords of the manor and they had habitants who were the farmers.

The Seigneur had a manor house, a mill to grind grain, judge any disputes, etc.

128

Early Arrival in Canada:

What was important about the Ohio valley?

both the British and the French wanted control over the fur trade in an area of the west of the Rocky Mountains in Ohio Valley.

129

Early Arrival in Canada:

Who were the habitants and what were their jobs?

The French Canadian farmers who settled in New France.
-had to serve in the militia
-keep land productive
-grind their grain in the mill

130

Early Arrival in Canada:

What were the causes and outcomes of the 7 years war?

Britain vs. France
-involved all their colonies all over the world
-ended up with Britain winning and France losing New France

131

Early Arrival in Canada:

What is imperialism?

a policy of extending a country's power and influence through diplomacy or military force.

132

Early Arrival in Canada:

What is a monopoly?

the exclusive possession or control of the supply or trade in a commodity or service.

133

Early Arrival in Canada:

What is colonialism?

the policy or practice of acquiring full or partial political control over another country, occupying it with settlers, and exploiting it economically

134

HBC vs NWC Explorers and Red River:

Who formed the Hudson Bay Company?

1

135

HBC vs NWC Explorers and Red River:

How did the Hudson Bay Company establish themselves?

1

136

HBC vs NWC Explorers and Red River:

How did the Hudson Bay company conduct trade?

1

137

HBC vs NWC Explorers and Red River:

Who formed the NorthWest Company?

1

138

HBC vs NWC Explorers and Red River:

How did the North West Company establish themselves?

1

139

HBC vs NWC Explorers and Red River:

How did the North West company conduct trade?

1

140

HBC vs NWC Explorers and Red River:

What is Rupert's land?

1

141

HBC vs NWC Explorers and Red River:

What were the desirable furs?

1

142

HBC vs NWC Explorers and Red River:

Who were the major explorers of the fur trade?

1 - see work package

143

American Revolution and War of 1812:

What were the three causes of the American Revolution?

1. Royal Proclamation
2. Taxation without representation
3. Weak governance

144

American Revolution and War of 1812:

What is taxation without representation?

1

145

American Revolution and War of 1812:

What does weak governance mean?

1

146

American Revolution and War of 1812:

Why did the Royal proclamation make the Americans angry?

1

147

American Revolution and War of 1812:

What was the Boston Tea Party?

1

148

American Revolution and War of 1812:

What was the Declaration of Independence?

1

149

American Revolution and War of 1812:

What were the causes of the American victory against the British?

1

150

American Revolution and War of 1812:

Who were the patriots?

1

151

American Revolution and War of 1812:

Who is Tecumseh?

1

152

American Revolution and War of 1812:

What is manifest destiny?

1

153

American Revolution and War of 1812:

What were the First nations alliances?

1

154

Upper and Lower Canada:

What was the Constitutional act?

1

155

Upper and Lower Canada:

What were the tensions in Upper Canada?

1

156

Upper and Lower Canada:

What were the tensions in Lower Canada?

1

157

Upper and Lower Canada:

Who were the Loyalists?

1

158

Upper and Lower Canada:

Who were the Family Compact?

1

159

Upper and Lower Canada:

Who were the Chateau Clique?

1

160

Upper and Lower Canada:

Who were land speculators?

1

161

Upper and Lower Canada:

What was the colonial government structure?

1

162

Upper and Lower Canada:

What were Crown Reserves?

1

163

Upper and Lower Canada:

What were Clergy reserves?

1

164

Upper and Lower Canada:

What were the push and pull factors regarding coming to Canada?

1

165

Upper and Lower Canada:

What was Responsible Government?

1

166

Upper and Lower Canada:

What is Veto power?

1

167

Upper and Lower Canada:

Who was William Lyon Mackenzie?

1

168

Upper and Lower Canada:

Who is Louis Joseph Papineau?

1

169

Upper and Lower Canada:

What was the List of Grievances?

1

170

Upper and Lower Canada:

What were the 92 Proposals and 10 Resolutions?

1

171

Upper and Lower Canada:

Who were the Patriotes?

1

172

Upper and Lower Canada:

What is important about Montgomery's Tavern?

1

173

Upper and Lower Canada:

Who was Lord Durham?

1

174

Upper and Lower Canada:

What is the Act of Union?

1

175

Upper and Lower Canada:

What is Canada west/Canada East?

1

176

Upper and Lower Canada:

What is Mercantilism?

1

177

Upper and Lower Canada:

What were the corn laws?

1

178

Upper and Lower Canada:

Who was Lord Elgin?

1

179

Upper and Lower Canada:

What were the Rebellion Losses Bill?

1

180

Upper and Lower Canada:

What were the coffin ships?

1

181

Confederation:

What were the US influences on Confederation?

Americans were expanding
Purchased Alaska from Russia
Gold Rush in BC - American gold miners
54-40 - USA wanted that as the northern border (Ladysmith is the 49)

182

Confederation:

How did the Fenian raids influence Confederation?

Irish who settled in the USA to escape Britain
Kept attacking British towns on the border
US Gov ignored it

183

Confederation:

How did the railway influence Confederation?

Most railways were being built in the USA
Colonists wanted a Canadian train for trade
in 1850 there was only 150 km of track

184

Confederation:

How did the Reciprocity influence Confederation?

-Britain had a trade deal with the USA,
-USA cancelled it because Britain supported the south in the American Civil war
-BNA colony suffered b/c they were seen as British

185

Confederation:

How did Great Britain wanting to end colonial rule influence Confederation?

Britain started to look at the colonies as a drain on them
cost of defense were huge
wanted colonies to pay more taxes

186

Confederation:

How did the political deadlock influence Confederation?

the government and the opposition had nearly the same number of seats
could not out vote each other

187

Confederation:

What is a double majority?

Government of East and government of west had to both pass a bill to make it law
Needed a majority in both places = double majority

188

Confederation:

What is Representation by Population?

population = number of seats allocated

189

Confederation:

Who were the major political parties and their leaders and platforms during Confederation?

Parti Rouge - Papineau
Parti Blue- George-Etienne Cartier
Clear Grits - George Brown (defend English interests)

190

Confederation:

What did the people in the Maritimes think about Confederation?

1

191

Confederation:

What was the Charlottetown conference?

1

192

Confederation:

What was the Quebec conference?

1

193

Confederation:

What was the London conference?

1

194

Confederation:

What was the British North America Act?

1

195

Confederation:

Why is July 1, 1867 important?

1

196

Confederation:

What is Federalism?

1

197

Confederation:

What were the 72 resolutions?

1

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