Flashcards in Chapter 3 Review Deck (46):
Who was Marat
He was the leader of the sans-culottes
He was killed in a bathtub
Who was Robespierre
He ruled France with the powers of a dictator. He executed many people. He started the reign of terror, and he eventually was executed
He was against the death penalty but killed many people then they killed him
Who was Montesquieu
He believed that a ruler must work with elected parliament. European monarchs did not embrace this idea.
Who was Voltaire
He was the most famous philosophe he was against church and wanted freedom of thought, he believed in an absolute monarchy but he hated injustice.
Who was Rousseau
He believed society needed a social contract
-each citizen would agree to follow the majority vote
-believed in natural law ( people are naturally good but modern society destroyed all those with a good will )
Who was Louis XIV (14)
He was known as the sun king the centre of all French life and culture, he believed he was the source of light in the nation
he ruled for 72 years
He made a palace in Versailles in southwest Paris for all the nobles to live with him. Everything Louis did there was an audience
He made the nobles take ballet lessons so they could move more gracefully
Who was Louis the XV
When Louis XIV died Louis XV came to power at the age of 5
The extravagances of the court and the failure to reform economic and social life continued to push France towards disaster
He was not prepared to be king he was to nice to deal with all the horrible problems he had good intentions
Order of events
The monarchy is overthrown
Tennis court oath is pledged
The directory meets
1. The tennis court oath is pledged
2. The monarchy is overthrown
3. Robespierre falls
4. The directory meets
Order of events
The monarchy is overthrown
The reign of terror begins
Louis XVI becomes king
The Bastille falls
1. Louis XVI becomes king.
2. The Bastille falls.
3. The monarchy is overthrown.
4. The rain of terror begin
What were the conditions in pre-Revolutionary France
France was organized like a pyramid king at top peasants at bottom
Most farmers owned only small plots of land and still used medieval farming methods
Peasants worked hard but most have a little money
Writers of the time described their existence as brutal
Peasants were forced to spend part of their time working on the Lord's property and on government projects. They were not allowed to kill or drive away animals that could destroy their crops
What were the inflation affects
Inflation is when the price of goods rise really quickly and it made flower expensive and bread was a staple diet for French people
What were the conditions of peasants
Peasant Farmers only owned small plots of land and used medieval farming methods they did not produce a lot of crops
Writers of the time described their existence as brutal they were victims of famine
Peasants were forced to spend part of the time working on the Lord's property and On government projects they weren't allowed to kill animals that tried to eat their crops and the aristocrats could plow through their crops and owed the peasants nothing
Louis XIV and how he ruled
He believed that he was the source of all light in the nation. nobles were invited to all the ceremonies of the Royal day such as the Royal getting up. his word was law, he depended solely on his own judgement.
Louis XIV ballet
Louis made all the Nobles take ballet in order to learn how to move more gracefully in the presence of the king
If you messed up you could lose your housing in Versailles
Louis XVI laws in France
Laws were different in different parts of the country some laws are based on ancient Roman laws.
For example the laws in the Paris region called custom of Paris
Every border you had to pay taxes
Mary Antoinette let them eat cake
Mary Antoinette did not actually say let them eat cake it was just a rumor
She was kinda stupid and didn't really understand what was going on
Who were the philosophes
Philosophes were women and men who met to discuss society and politics and the solution to social problems
What were Rousseaus ideas
He believed that society needed a social contract example citizens needed to agree on the majority
He believed in natural law: everyone was good but society killed everyone's good will
What were the Actions of the third estate
They quit the estates general and made the tennis court oath
They kept meeting until France had a new form of government
Louis got the other two estates to join the national ensembly it seemed the French Revolution had been a success
What were the reformers goals?
They wanted change
They wanted a form of democracy
Rights protecting the freedom of an individual
They wanted less power for the king
What was the National Assembly seating arrangement
On the left there was the jacobins and on the right there were the Girondists
What were the actions of the Paris mob
Actions of the mob were violent and unpredictable.
It supported some extreme measures that supported that resulted in the reign of terror
Louis XVI was executed after he agreed to the demands of the reformists why?
The king said yes yes yes we will do that they executed because
Louis XVI was not trust worthy because he had said yes yes yes before and not followed through
They killed him because he blamed the jocobins for what had gone wrong in France
They also thought the monarchy was no longer useful so they killed him because they didn't need him.
The king was resisting and obstructing the revolution
Louis wouldn't stop interfering so they didn't know what else to do and wanted to start off with a clean plate
His wife was Austrian and they didn't like that
Peasants in the country side
Peasants in the country side see medieval farming methods
The farmers weren't allowed to stop animals and the lords could go on hunting trips and destroy the wheat and not pay anything
Were forced to work on government land and projects
They were uneducated could not read or write had to pay taxes and give 10% of their income to the church
The march on Versailles
Women of March to Versailles as they march the women were joined by hundreds of other followers
They were covered in mud from their walk and then attacked the national assembly and went into Versailles
The king and queen had to agree to go back to Paris
What rights did the declaration of rights give
The declaration of rights guaranteed: freedom of thought, speech, security, and property, and it put limits on the power of the government
How were people executed in this time
People were executed by the guillotine
The new elected parliament put the king on trial for his life
They turned him into a regular citizen and then chopped his head off via guillotine
Was the response to revolution from the other European nations
Rich people left and tried to get support to try and get the monarchs power back. They were afraid of revolution and tried to preserve the French monarchy
Many monarchy's were afraid that they would be killed Spain and britan battled the French to preserve their monarchy
Reign of terror
The terror was designed to stop un revolutionaries
The reign of terror started when Louis 16 th was killed
Robespierre was the leader of the reign of terror
Why were the philosophes important to the French Revolution
They were important because
1. They helped shape the revolution
2. They helped with the rights in the deceleration of rights (freedom of thought, speech, religion)
3. They would talk about science. "If you can't see it, it's not real"
4. The philosophes said all the ideas, they were the smarts of the French Revolution.
5. Their movement was called the enlightenment
What did the philosophes want in the form of a ruler
They did not want a monarch they wanted a republic.
What was the financial state of the peasants
Not many peasants were well of most were poor.
What was the financial state of people in cities in France
Most people were poor
Did anyone have monopolys on goods
Only some people had monopolys on goods.
Was Louis XIV a peace loving king?
No he was not a peace loving king
T or f Louis XVI did not have the support of the middle class
True Louis did not have the support of the middle class
What did the French reformers want in the form of governing
They wanted a limited democracy
What did the general estates want?
They wanted more power for themselves and less for the king
What did the mob do?
The mob attacked the Bastille and let out everyone
What did the people in the countryside do
The farmers attacked the nobles chateaus
When the women stormed the Bastille what was the outcome
The government has to move to Paris
Why did the new government fail
They failed because there were too many groups that wanted different things.
Who were the sans couloirs
They were poor people from the city