Flashcards in 5.8 Deck (39):
How many Canadians were called upon to defend international peace and freedom in the First and Second World Wars, and the Korean War? How many lost their lives?
-More than 110 000
What were the two particular missions that Canada was involved in following WWII?
The Arab-Israeli and the India-Pakistan conflicts.
When did the term "peacekeeping" come around?
What did Lester B. Pearson propose during the Suez Crisis of 1956?
That a multinational UN peacekeeping force be sent to Egypt to separate the Israeli, British, and French troops from the Egyptian troops as they faced off over control of the Suez Canal?
What did Lester B. Pearson receive for his visionary idea?
The 1957 Nobel Peace Prize
What are Peacekeepers?
They are traditionally placed between hostile forces to supervise cease-fires and the withdrawal of opposing forces.
What has the role of Canadians in peace support operations expanded to in the recent years?
The delivery of humanitarian aid, the supervision of elections, repatriation of refugees, disarming of warring factions, restoration of shattered landscapes, helping nurture stable government and human rights, organization of electoral systems, training of police forces and the judiciary.
What new people do international peace support activities now involve and what new role have Canadian peacekeepers taken?
Our active combat role in Afghaistan
How many international peace support operations have Canadian served in and how many have died?
Who was the 1988 Nobel Peace Prize awarded to?
Collectively to UN peacekeepers in recognition of their efforts.
Why have people begun to question the role of peacekeepers?
First issues came in Yugoslavia where the allies had created one country out of four at the end of the Second World War.
What were the four countries that made up Yugoslavia?
Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia, and Hersegovina.
Who was the communist leader of Yugoslavia? What happened after the first decade?
Marshal Tito. After the first decade, civil war broke out (1992).
What happened in Yugoslavia in short?
Ethnic cleansing was practiced by all parties. Slovenia and Croatia declared independence in 1991, and gov't attempted to stop them. Slovenia seperated easily after a short standoff. In Croatia, by 1995, the Serb communities that had occupied eastern Croatia had Ben expelled. The Croats cleansed the Serbs.
War between three religious groups: The Serbs (Orthodox), the Croats (Catholic), and the Kosovars (Islamic).
In short, what was Canada's history in Yugoslavia?
FIrst Canadian contingent to the UN mission in Yugoslavia in 1992. They were well trained. They gained worldwide prominence due to extensive media coverage.
What was the most dramatic incident in Yugoslavia?
The intervention on behalf of the Muslim communities in Bosnia. Worked out an agreement whereby the Muslims in 5 UN "safe areas" we're to disarm but be protected from the Serbs by UN soldiers. The Serbs crushed 4/5 safe areas by 1995 and the Canadians left and the Muslims were killed by the Serbs.
Discuss the air strikes in Yugoslavia?
Used on recommendation of Major Stroganoff. Directed to their targets by the SAS patrols. NATO had made air power available to the UN when evidence came to light that Yugoslavia was giving strong support to Bosnian Serbs. First instance of use (and first use of NATO air power against targets). Serb forces backed off. British UN peacekeepers then entered the town. Only one that did not fall to the Serbs.m This was the final phase of the war in 1995.
Where have Canadians all been in the 1990s? Which was the most infamous?
El Salvador, Cambodia, Israeli-Arab border. Angola, Mozambique, Rwanda-Uganda, the Sahara, and Somalia (most infamous).
What happened in Somalia?
UN troops were thrown into a war zone, the UN troops in Somalia were seen as a threat. They were truly being attacked from both sides of the warring groups. There were many accusations of Canadian troops mistreating Somalia civilians.
What was the Canadian mission, Operation Deliverance? What went wrong?
It charged them with restoring order in Somalia. Canadian Airborne regiment was splitting apart at the seams. Murder after murder, they came home disgraced. Tracks were covered, and responsibility shifted up and down.
Who was Clayton Matchee and what did he do?
He was supposed to stop Somalia civilians from stealing from the Canadian compound. Matchee and three other soldiers decided to beat up a teen that they had caught. They eat the teen to death and were found guilty of murdering the young Somalia teen. Led to the Somalia Affair which was played out in the public spectrum in Canada, especially after disturbing pictures of Matchee wre realized with the dead teen.
Is Somalia at peace now?
No it is still regarded as a lawless nation and pirating has only recently been stabilized.
What was the Rwandan Genocide?
The slaughter of an estimated 800 000 to 1 000 000 Tutsis and moderate Hutus, mostly carried out by two extremist Hutu militia groups during a period of 100 days from April 6th through mid-July of 1994.
How did the Genocide end?
The Tutsi rebel movement seized power of the Hutu government.
What happened on April 6, 1994 (when the Genocide started)?
A plane carrying the Hutu president of Rwanda and nearby Burundi is shot down. The hUtu extremist launched a calculated campaign and began killing hundreds of Tutsis and politically moderate Hutus. Killed roughly 8000 Tutsis a day.
What does the Rwandan genocide stem back to?
The days of colonization when Beligum favoured the Tutsi because of what was seen as a more impressive physical presence.
What did Romeo Dallaire do?
By killing three Belgian UN soldiers early in the three months of slaughter, the Hutu sent a message: stay out of Rwanda. It worked and western gov'ts avoided the word "genocide" b/c it would have meant that they would have had to intervene. The US vetoed any military intervention and successfully lobbied for the withdrawal of UN forces. Dallaire did not leave and fought for a peaceful solution to the war.
What is Canada's shift in peacekeeping?
They decreased its role in peacekeeping iwth major loses in Rwanda, Somalia, and Yugoslavia. They increased its role in NATO.
What do NATO missions try to do?
Stay neutral but at the same time allow for more protection and structure that peacekeeping missions. Many have more defined outcomes for missions.
What was Kosovo?
Kosovo was trying to gain independence from Serbia, but Serbia did not want to let it go. Led by Slobodan Milosevic, the genocide unfolded. Canada and other international communities came in with a NATO campaign and the UN and that did not stop close to a million Albanian Kosovars from being killed.
How do Afghanistan start?
After the World Trade Center bombing on September 11, 2001. Response by US President George W Bush was a vow to fight terrorism and predominantly Al Qaeda and Osama Bin Laden. American troops invaded Afghanistan in October 2001 and drove teh Taliban from government. It is still an ongoing conflict that is still present as Americantroops are still on the ground in Afghanistan and still fighting.
Looking at NATO and the UN, is it Canada's responsibility to help other countries in a time of civil war and innocent civilians may be killed?
Yes I think that Canada does have a certain responsibility to other countries considering that they played a large part in the development of NATO and the UN. Canada has a reputation as a peacekeeping nation and I think that it is important to maintain that image on an international level.
What were some issues Canadians had to deal with in Yugoslavia (have 3)?
Some issues that Canadians had to deal with in Yugoslavia were that they witnessed many crimes against humanity, but their orders prevented them from intervening. In addition, peacekeepers were forced to defend themselves on several occasions. Also, the UN failed to understand the volatile situation and sent peacekeepers on a mission that was bound to fail.
What was the Somalia Affair? Was Somalia a success for the UN or a failure and why?
The Somalia affair happened when the Somalian gov't fell. Various Somalian groups were fighting for power and the conflict was made worse by widespread famine. Many were murdered, and many died of starvation. the Somalia Affair was when some members of the Canadian Airborne Regiment committed violent acts against Somali citizens. One of the worst acts was against a sixteen year old boy, Shidane Arone, who had been caught trying to steal supplies. The soldiers who committed the crimes were brought to justice. Somalia was a failure for the UN because of Canada's tarnished image and by 2010, Somalia was still in turmoil.
Who is Romeo Dallaire and why is he a Canadian hero?
In 1993 there was a civil war going on in Rowanda between the two main ethnic groups--Hutus and Tutsis. In April of 1994, an airplane carrying Rwandan President Jevenal Habyarimana was shot down. He was a Hutus. The Tutsis were blamed and many Hutus went on a murderous rage, killing Tutsis as well as many Hutus who criticized the government. Romeo Dallaire warned UN officials of the risk of genocide, pleaded for reinforcements, and asked permission to seize Hutu weapons--but his request was ignored. He is a Canadian hero because he recognize the need for reinforcements even though they didn't come. He also wrote a book on his experiences.
Why is Canada's support for peacekeeping declining? Should Canada be doing more in this regard?
Canada's support for peacekeeping is declining because peacekeepers keep having to defend themselves against armed attacks in Yugoslavia and Somalia, and in Rowanda they were powerless against stopping a genocide. Some argue that peacekeeping should be abandoned and that international forces should focus on peacemaking. Some argue that the UN has a duty to help people everywhere. The Canadian gov't is a massive advocate for responsibility to protect.
Some critics of the Gulf War did not believe the war was fought because of concern for the citizens of Kuwair. They believed the coalition allies were more concerned about ensuring access to Iraq's huge oil reserves. Is it ethical for one country to invade another in order to gain access to their resources?
I don't think that it is right for a country to invade another country for access to their resources if there are other ways to attain those resources or if the resources are not vital to the survival of the general worldwide population. I do believe that this was the reason for the Gulf War--the allies wanted access to the resources.
Consider the challenges face by the Canadian forces during the 1990s. How did Canada's role in international conflicts show continuity during this time? How did it show change?
Canada's role in international conflicts showed continuity because they continued to become involved in peacekeeping missions in third world countries. They still continued to train troops in other countries. They were still impartial. Their main goals are still keeping peace and helping to ensure stable political environments and they are still protecting human rights and offering humanitarian assistance. Their role has changed because they have taken on a role in active combat in Afghanistan. Their support for UN peacekeeping missions has also declined, and Canada has pursued peace in other ways such as joining the campaign against landmines.