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Flashcards in Lesson 8 Deck (69):

What were the first Europeans interested in more than establishing colonies?

exploiting the resources


Was the fur trade a European invention?

No, the First Nations had already developed a complex system. The Europeans simply joined in.


What became the first major European economic activity in North America?

the fur trade


Before the fur trade, what had been the major source of trade commerce in North America?

trade in fisheries


Why was whale meat and fat highly prized?

the blubber was used to make oil for lamps and I guess that people just liked it


Who did the Basque, fishing crews, trade with?

Beothuk of Newfoundland, Innue of Labrador, and the St Lawrence North Shore, and the Mi'kmaq of Gaspe, Chaleur Bay and Cape Bretons


When did the Basque fur trade peak?

late 1580s


When where the Basque merchants forced out of Canada trade?

after 1600


What was the one time in Canadian history that the Europeans did not try to overrun First Nations land?

the fur trade


When did the prosperous and respect between the First Nations people and colonists begin to end?

with the rise of the Hudson's Bay Company (HBC).


In what year did the British Government give a massive land grant to the HBC? What was it called?

-Rupert's Land (NWT, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and Alberta)


What was the problem with Rupert's Land?

The British government did not own the land they granted to the HBC. As far as the First Nations knew, nobody owned Rupert's Land and the British never bought it.


The European colonial governments were democratic and did not chosider the opinions of which group of people?

The First Nations


Who were colonial governments directly responsible to?

the mother country


In what year did two Frenchmen named what explor the Hudson's Bay and learnt that it was rich with furs?

-Raddisson and Groseillier


When did Raddisson and Groseillier form the HBC?



What did the King of England grant Raddisson and Groseillier?

a monopoly to trade in the Hudson's Bay area even though they did not own the land


What gave Raddisson and Grosseillier a large advantage over the French?

The forts that they build as big ocean ships could navigate their way to the forts. French traders had to paddle long distances for furs.


Where was the HBC given access to? How many km is it?

-Rupert's Land
- 7 770 000 km


When was the first official post opened and where was it opened?

-Moose Factory


Why were the First Nations integral to the fur trade?

they were the trappers


What was the job of First Nations middlemen?

-collected furs from the interior
-brought the furs to the forts on the Hudson's Bay to trade for riffles, ammunition, pots, cloth, needles, axes, knives, and muskets


The HBC did not create British colonies but instead did what?

brought in employees with contracts to serve the company for 7-9 years


As men were brought in, who did they live with? What did this result in?

-Aboriginal women
-Metis people


Who were the Haudenosaunee supported by to overthrow the French?

the Dutch and the British


Who did the Haudenosaunee beat in 1649?

the Ouendat


What resulted from the loss of the Ouendat?

the fur trade lost its middleman


When did the Haudenosaunee have to seek a truce and with whom?

1701 with the French and Anishinabe ("Great Peace")


What are Courier de Bois?

"Runner of the Woods".
They were not approved of by the French and were individuals that when furs becamse scare they decided to live with the Aboriginals.
Became very good middle men for the traders


Why did the Northwest Company (NWC) stake their claims in the interior?

Because they realized that no monopoly could be enforced where the HBC had no presence


When did the NWC start to have a serious impact on the HBC profits?

By 1784


The NWC was a partnership of how many different fur trading groups?



When was the NWC founded?



What did the NWC exists as for the first few years?

a series of short-term partnerships which lasted for one trading cycle each


Who was the NWC led by?

courageous and enterprising Scottish-Canadian traders from Montreal.


Was the HBC or the NWC the first structure which spanned the continent, and the first North American continent to operate on such a scale?



What did the NWC defy?

The Royal Charter and monopoly that had been given to the HBC


What were the NWC people known as?



Where did the Nor'Westers live, winter, and work?

mostly to the west of Hudson Bay


How did the NWC show their disdain for HBC's charter rights?

by building their forts right beside those of the HBC at strategic trading posts


How was the NWC different from the HBC?

-owned and operated by ment who were themselves active in the buisness
-they were, for the most part, Scots and were bound by ties of nationality as well as close kinship through th eclan structure
-HBC directors and investors were primarily English noblemen and financiers who governed the company from afar. Their interest in the buisness was financial and their knowledge of the trade was second-hand at best


What was the key difference between the two companies?

the sea route to Hudson Bay was a huge advanage as they got to sail ships right in


How did the sea route benefit HBC? Explain the cycle

Benefit from a short buisness cycle.
Ships could leave England, travel to Hudson's Bay, offload good, pick up furs and return to England in the space of about 5 MONTHS.
A complete buisness cycle—from shipment of good to return of furs in payment for those goods—normally took about 14 MONTHS.


The NWC's cycle was much___and more___.



The NWC voyageurs had to cover___times the distance as HBC to reach Lake Winnipeg?



How long did canoe brigades leaving Montreal take to reach Fort William?

8 weeks


When did the previous year's furs (NWC) arrive?



When were the NWC furs auctioned in London?

April which was almost a full year later from start to finish


How long did peopel at the NWC have to wait to get paid?

almost a full year which was too long for many people


What upped the stakes considerable in 1811?

HBC sold 74 million acres in the Red River valley to majority shareholder Thomas Douglas, Lord Selkirk


What did Selkirk plan to do with the land?

Use the land to settle displaced Scottish highlanders, the first of who arrived in 1812. The settlement straddled the NWC route to the Northwest and encompassed a number of their important forts


Which group of people were well established in the Red River Valley?

the Metis
they had a thriving local economy based on agriculture and the buffalo


What did the Metis sell to NWC for its canoe brigades?



Who did the Metis become natural allies with and why?

-the Nor'Westers
-the developing struggle with the HBC


When did the Battle of Seven Oaks take place?

June 1816


Who did the armed confrontation of Seven Oaks take place between?

The Metis and the HBC


How many men died at the so-called Battle of SEven Oaks?

21 men


What did the massacre at Seven Oaks change?

the relationship between the two fur companies became a struggle for supremacy rather than a contest for commercial advantage
both companies lost sight of the trade


Why did the NWC and HBC join?

Realized that neither company could grow withthe fighting. Both grew wearing of the strain and spent all their effort competing with each other.


What was the value of the pooled assets of both companies?

£200 000 each


What are the Baymen and how did they impact the fur trade?

The Baymen were the employees of the HBC. They were usually indentured servants the HBC hired for fur. 7-9 years in exchange for necessities. Married Aboriginal women, had Metis children.


Who was Henry Kelsey?

-was born in England around 1667
-apprenticed to the HBC in early teens as a cabin boy on ships that carried supplies to Hudson's Bay
-spent the next 40 years working for the HBC


Why might Kelsey have joined the HBC?

he was an orphan, they probably offered him a chance of a better life


Historical records suggest that Kelsey helped other HBC employees learn First Nations languages. What does this tell us about Kelsey's view of the First Nations and their role in the fur trade?

-ahead of his time
-saw the First Nations as people
-saw their worth
-how important they were to the fur trade
-impacted the fur trade by making th eFirst Nations more apt to participate knowing the Europeans aren't all bad


What elements of the HBC's charter do you think had a significant role in shaping the years that followed? Why?

The elements of the HBC charter that I predict had a significant role in shaping the years that followed are the part about the land not being owne by the Christian state because they wanted those lands. Also the part where they mention the "sole" trade because I'm sure that them claiming the area, being the only ones allowed to trade, would leave room for competition and really piss of the First Nations and the other people who aren't a part of the HBC but still want to trade.


Why was the battle for the Bay so important? (1697).

The Grench won and got back the land that was previoiusly their. They were also lead by Pierre d'Iberville who was the first Canadian born officer to be presented with the cross of the order of Saint-Louis. The French were also outnumvered and still managed to capture York Factory.


In what ways did European rivalries, especially between Britain and France, have cosequences for the fur trade?

-Hard for First Nations (created conflict for them)
-Prices may go up and down when they shouldn't which could have a negative impact on the fur trade for the First Nations (not getting what they deserve)
-Rivalries among First Nations groups based on whether they were allied with the French or the British
-Could lead to war


What was the primary concern of the British in constructing the Plains of York and Prince fo Wales Forts?

I'm just guessing but I suspect that the primary concern would be if the water rose too high which would cause damage.


What was the importance of women in the Fur Trade as well as in their communities.

-provided companionship
-unions with European men were good for buisness
-had knowledge on how to survive in North America
-accompanied traders on their journey
-provided food
-prepared fur for travel
-gathered supplies fo canoe repair
-paddled canoes and acted as guides
-provided european traders with kinship connections with everyone in their community as well as to other communities by extension
-many tasks were traditional roles for First Nations women, but over time the roles evolved and many became translators and intermediaries between their communities and the traders