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Flashcards in Lesson 6 Deck (56):

As of ___the British and French were developing a ruvarly in the ___ ___.



When did the Seven Years War take place?



What was the Seven Years War?

A war that took place between the French and the British. It took place in North America s well. The British sought to drive the French out of North America.


What is the Plains of Abraham?

It was the big battle between the British and the French.


Who was the general that the British sent?

James Wolfe who was the son of a high ranking general. He saw his position as a demotion.


What and who did the defense of New France rely on?

1) Les Habitants arming themselves
2) Alliances with the Huron and Algonquin as they were expert marskmen


Who did France send for a general?

A top general, Louis Joseph Montcalm who found his officers to be incompetent. He accepted his placement (he was the son of a nobleman) because of financial needs.


Why did Wolfe and Montcalm see their appointment in New France as a demotion?

If you fought in France and protected certain areas of France, you were re warded financially or politically. No one knew what went on in New France so there was no fame or glory invovled.


How long did the Plains of Abraham last?

Just 15 minutes


What happened in brief?

The french line faltered and became confused. The first British shot was devestating and the French immediately began to retreat. If it had not been for their First Nations allies, the French would have been massacred.


Were both generals killed?



Where did the remaining French forces retreat to? How long was it until they had to surrender?

-retreated to Montreal
-they surrendered within a year


Which colonies did England now have in North America?

Ontario, Quebec, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Newfoundland, PEI, and 13 American Colonies


After the Plains of Abraham, what did France consist of?

A vertical stip of territory running from northern Quebec to Louisiana


French Canadian's controlled a profitable ___ ___ featuring ___ ___ and alliances with ___ ___ tribes.



When England and the American colonies crushed New France, England needed to enact legistation that would help what?

Increase the English Protestant population in North America.


The roots of Quebec Seperatism can be traved back to what?

the fall of New France and the subsequent English legislation's


The first British Government in present day Canada had how many years between teh surrender of New France and the end of the Seven Years War in Europe?



During the three year time span, what kind of government was formed? WHo was it under the watch of? What is this time period known as? What was the main goal of hte British and why?

-Temporary government
-Guy Carleton
-Martial Law
-Continuity was the main goal as they did not want to provoke a revolt in New France


What were the five things the Royal Proclamation of 1763 did?

1) Limited the size of Quebec
2) Lost control of all territory in present day U.S.A
3) Britain gave land grants ot English officers to settle Quebec
4) The English gave the land along the Ohio River to the First Nations trives
5) First Nation's are recognized as a nation with their own political sovereignity and territorial rights


What did Quebec see the Royal Proclamation as?

One of the first attempts by their English/Canadian rulers to assimilate French culture into English culture.


Out of 71000 citizens of Queven, 69000 were French____



Why were the 13 American colonies fed up? What did this result in?

british taxes and threatened to go to war against the British for their independence which they did in 1775


With the Quebec Act, where did Quebec have their territory extended to?

Great Lake region, Michigan, and west of the Ohio River valley.


Quebec Act: What was French civil Law put in place for?

matters of property and buisness disputes


Quebec Act: What were French Catholics alllowed ot do?

practice law and work in government


Quebec Act: What happened to the Seigneural system?

it was kept in place


What happened to the First Nation's land claims around the Ohio River valley?

they were not addressed making their land easy targets for American settlers


WHat did American's see the Quebec Act as?

their final straw in their conflict with England


The ____and British fought together in the Seven Years War against the French, now the French were being granted rights where the American's wanted to expand.



What did the French see the Quebec Act as?

one of the few times their cultural needs were respected and accommodated through English law


England sent over how many British Red Coats and how many Naval ships for the American Revolution?

-56 000


What land did the American's target? They took___,but by the time they arrived in ___ ____, their forces were exhausted and out of food.



Why did many American's desert?

They believed that taking Quebec was not a cause worth dying for.


Who were the Loyalists?

American's who remained loyal to Britain. Most had strong buisness ties to Britain or were recent immigrants


How many loyalists fled to U.S.A?

200 000


Where did most Loyalists head as they did not want to live in Quebec?

Nova Scotia and New BRunswick, but most went to Ontairo


With the birth of an English Ontario, the future rivalry between___and ___ ___ was set in motion.



The USA began in what year and quickly became hostile with who?

-the First Nations tribes living along the Ohio River


What is Manifest Destiny?

The belief that God had blessed the USA and that they should one day possess all of North America.
**Justify taking Ohio Valley which belonged to the First Nations


What is a representative government?

Is when the public elects people to act on its behalf in deliverations surrounding political decision making. In British North America this was implemented for the first time with te Constitutional Act of 791. The Act introduced elected assemblies but it did not mean that British North America was a responsible democracy.


What is a responsible democracy?

Permits those who govern to administer laws on the basis of the authority they obtain from the elected representatives of the public. In 1791 the government was not responsible becasue those with the real power, a small council, could veto any decisions made.


What is an oligarchy?

Is when the government decision making is controlled by a small, elite group.


What are the two key ways to make a government truly democratic?

1) It must be representative (elected) by citizens
2) It must be responsible to the citizens. This means that if the representatives anger the citizens, the citizens have a way to remove them from power.


In all the British North America governments we have seen thus far, there are only what two positions who have the power and full authority to make the decisions. They are not elected and not responsible.

The governor and an appointed council


What did the Constitution Act of 1791 divide Quebec into and what did it create?

divided Quebec into two and created Upper Canada (Ontario) and Lower Canada (Quebec).


What are the seperate colonies that remain?

Nova Scota, PEI, New Brunswick, and NFLD.


Why did the English feel that an English speaking government was needed?

Because Ontario was growing rapidly since the American Revolution.


What happened to Quebec's land in the Constitution Act?

It was taken away from them.


In the Constitution Act, were Upper Canada or Lower Canada given more elected representatives in government?

They were both given the same amount


Was it a problem that Lower Canada and Upper Canada had the same amount of elected representatives wven though Lower Canada had a much higher population?



Where First Nations included in the Constitution Act?

No, they were completely left out. No land was designated for them so many settled in the Canadian West and joined the Fur Trade and continued to use the buffalo as their main source of food.


Discuss the expulsion of the Acadians and the Treaty of Utrecht.

The Treaty of Utrecht ended the War of teh Sapnish Succcession as well as fighting between British and French on the east coast of America. It gave Britain posession of Acadia. By 1754, Charles Lawrence was named governor of Nova Scotia. He did notlike that the aCadians were neutral. He made them take another oath and they refused. He then expelled them from their homes and destroyed their crops and homes so that they would never return.


Why was the British conquest of Quebec considered to be one of the most important battles to have ever taken place?

because the majority of that are belonged to France and shifted to belonging ot Britain. It also affected relations iwht Aboriginals.


Explain how the rivalry between the British and the French for the control of the fur trade helped cause rivalry between First Nations.

The First Nations were caught in the middle. The Europeans competed with each other and began to demand more from the First Nations adn gave less. Alcohol caused addiction,. It made the First nations too dependent on European goods and they lost some of their culture. Guns gave certain tribes advantages in battle.


What mutual benefits for First Nations people and Europeans were consequences of the fur trade?

As hunters spent more time trapping and trading furs, they spent less time doing th traditional tasks needed for their community's survival. Some communites became dependent on the fur trade posts for supplies, especially during winter.