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Flashcards in 3.4 Deck (43):

When was the province of British Columbia created?



When was the province of Prince Edward Island created?



Why had a number of American's been moving west?

the gold rush


What were the three options the colonists of BC had?

1) Remain a British colony....Britain wanted no part of this.
2) Join USA --> In a pole done in BC only 104/10000 wanted to join the USA
3) Join Canada


What were BC's three demands for joining Canada?

1) build a wagon road to link Vancouver with the rest of the country
2) take over debt
3) responsible government


What did Macdonald promise BC?

All their demands and insisted a wagon road was not enough. He told them that a railway would be built within 10 years.


What did PEI build? How much debt were they in?

A railway around their island as they did not want to join Canada which resulted in them being 3.25 million dollars in debt.


What was PEI's largest problem?

Absentee landlords


What was an abstantee landlord?

They were absent, not paying taxes. They brough property and returned to England, never coming back. They owned title to the land so it could not be sold.


How much did John A spend to buy out landlords?

$800 000


What did John A do to PEI in terms of what he gave them? (3 things).

1) took over their debts
2) telegraph service
3) year round ferry service


What were some of the benefits to Canada of bringing in PEI?

1) Base of defense--possible American invasion
2) larger tax base
3) power/prestige for Canada...more territory
4) Presently- Tourist destination
5) Resources - Fish and Agriculture...potatoes


What did John A create to avoid the "Wild West" lifestyle of the USA?



What were American hunters doing?

Crossing the border and starting fights with European settlers and FN.


What did the NWMP relationship with the FN aid in the implementation of?

The National Policy


In the mind of the Canadian government, the FN would first be granted____, second_____, and third____into Canadian society.

protection, civilized, assimilated


What things did the NWMP play a key role in the first stage of?

The whiskey trade and by opening some dialogue reagarding Canada's intentions in the West. They were also important in the Treaty making process.


What were the wolfers?

They were hunters from the US that crossed the border to kill buffalo and poised their remains as wolf bait.


What would the American's bring to Canadian trading posts?

Whisky, and FN who had travelled for days would trade their horses, cattle, and furs for the whisky because they didn't want to leave empty handed.


What did the American's do at Fort Whoop-Up?

took over the trading post and put up a US flag


What happened at Cypress Hills?

After a night of heavy drinking and American Wolfer blamed a FN for stealing his horse. A group of wolfers attacked the FN camp. The horse was later found wondering in a field as his drunken owner did not tie him up properly.


How many people died at the Cypress Hills Massacre?

36 Nakota men, wome, and children. 1 American Wolfer.


When was the NWMP created?

May 20, 1873


What were the 3 duties of the NWMP?

1) Keep peace
2) Prevent crime
3) Catch criminals


What were the 6 criteria for becoming a NWMP?

1) between 18-40
2) at least 183 cm in height
3) good horsemen
4) of fine character
5) active and healthy
6) able to read and write in French or English


What was the Grand March? When was it?

Three hundred officers marched west in an attempt to establish order and sow that the law was now in the west. The March represented the beginning of the NWMP is the west.


What was the reputation of the Mounties?

Very disciplined and well trained.


When did the peace the NWMP brough last until?

Until the North-West Rebellion in 1885


When was the Battle of Little Big Horn adn Custer's Last Stand?



What group of FN were among the last to hold out and not be placed on reserve land? Who were they led by?

The Sioux people who were led by Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse.


How many men in Custer's company died? How many other companies were destroyed?

every man and 4 others were destroyed


What kind of tactical mistakes did Custer make?

He underestimated teh number of Sioux warriors, dividing his army, and not waiting for another division which was less than a day's march away.


What did the Sioux do after the battle?

fled the valley


When were most Sioux tribes under American control? What happened to Crazy Horse and Sitting Bull?

-Crazy Horse fought on and was killed by American forces over a year later
-Sitting Bull and his people fled to Saskatchewan, where he met General Walsh of the NWMP.


What was the difference between the west of America and the west of Canada in terms of law and order and FN treatment?

The west was very different in the US than it was in Canada. The role of the NWMP was to be friendly and solve disuptes. The role of CUster and the American army was the kill Aboriginals. Very different outlook. It seperated us from the US at that point in time.


The Conservative government's motto, A Mari usque ad Mare (from sea to sea) could be viewed from a variety of conflicting historical persepctives. Which groups in Canada at this time might see the motto positively? Which groups might have a cautious or negative view?

The groups in Canada that might see the motto as encouraging and good would be the white settlers, specifically those that go along with the Conservative ideals because the more they expand, the more power the Conservative government will have. They also feared attack from the Americans and so having a larger nation owuld be like having a more powerful nation. They more they expand, the less America can expand. I woud imagine that the FN and Metis people would have differing views from those of the white settlers because as they expand "from to to sea" the land that they are using came from theirs.


What did homestead mean?

Meant settlign on land with the purpose of farming and eventually owning it.


Why did the government negotiate treaties in the west? What did the government want from these treaties?

Because the land that they planned to give to homesteaders was already occupied by FN and Metis peoples. They negotiated treaties with the hope topersuade FN to give up their Aboriginal title to the land an =d move onto permanent reserves. From these treaties, the government wanted to make room for immigrant famers and ranchers.


What di the Aboriginals want from these treaties?

The FN wanted reserve lands, annual payment, and other negotiated provisions, such as healthcare and education.


Why was land 32 kms away from the rail lien free?

becaue it was more valuable because of the proximity to transportation. Settlers had to pay a registration of $10 to receive 160- acre (65 hectare) homestead.


How big is a township?

A township is 36--square miles (9324 hectares).


What attack played an important part of creating the NWMP?

The act that played an important role was the Cypress Hills Massacre. This massacre happened when a group of American traders and trappers murdered more than a dozen Nakota (Assiniboine) people.


Where was the offical training academy for the NWMP?

The official training academy was Macleod, Alberta until 1882 when Regina became the official training academy.