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Flashcards in 2.6 Deck (37):

After the War of 1812, there was less need from the English for what group of people?

The First Nations


What did kinds of policies did newcomers fashion that would do what to the FN?

Displace them from the lands that they settled


What were the two reasons the campaign to remove newcomers wasn't military (one negative and one positive)?

1) The experience in the eras of commercial partnership and military alliance had left a tradition of working with aboriginal people, an appraoch that took concrete from most notably in the PRC of 1763. The RPC acknowledged a minimal version of aboriginal land rights and enjoined colonial societies to negotiate through the representatives of the crown for access to FN lands (positive).
2) The demographic and military realities: colonial and Canadian governments until the twentieth century lacked the population numbers, financial resources, and military muscle to remove aboriginal opponents by force of arms. It was too costly to go to war with Aboriginals and Americans might come in. It would be too difficult.


What did the absence of a tradition of hostility to aborignal pepples as a whole, along with demographic and financial weakness, mean in regards to how they were treated?

The removal of aboriginal communities from the path of progress would be conducted peacefully, but nonetheless destructively and effectively.


What kind of treaties did negotiated dispossession and cultural assimilation involve?

Land-surrender treaties


The approach was not____but___; never actual____but___ ___. (Robinson Treaty).



In what year were the Robinson Treaties made and with whom?

1850 between the Crown and the Ojibwa FN of Lake Superior.


What did Ojibwa for the Crown to treaty with them over?

The mining activity of settlers.


What were the Robinson Treaties made for?

To convey certain lands in the Northern Ontario and Prairie provinces of the upper Great Lakes region to the Crown.


How many treaties do the Robinson Treaties consist of?



What are the two Robinson Treaties?

-The Robinson-Superior Treaty
-The Robinson-Huron Treaty


What is the Robinson-Superior Treaty and the Robinson-Huron Treaty? When were they created?

-September 7, 1850 (Robinson-Superior Treaty)
-September 9, 1850 (Robinson-Huron Treaty)
The treaties initially allowed entry to lands for mining and wer largest in terms of land to date. They also introduced the concept of creating "Indian Reserves" on small portions of the land surrendered under the treaty.


What were the reserves set aside for?

For exclusive use of individual FN communities while the underlying title was held by the crown.


What would the Robinso-Treaties serve as in terms of future treaties?

As a model for the major treaties that would follow westward colonization after Canadian Confederation in 1867.


By 1857, in the Province of Canada, an Indian man could qualify for the right to vote by applying for what?



By applying for enfranchisement, what did they receive? What would they be subject to?

An allotment of reserve lands which would be subject to assessment and taxation.


WHich did enfranchisment remove?

All distinctions between the legal rights and liabilities of Indians and those of other British subjects.


Did enfranchisment grant an entitlement to vote? What did it make the FN leave behind or lose?

It did not in itself grant an entitlement to vote though as one may expect. Enfranchisement did, however, require the abandonment of reserve rights and the right to live with one's family and culture.


What was enfranchisement dependent on?

It was dependent on proof of literacy, education, morality, and solvency.


What did the consequent requirements for enfranchisement constitute?

The discriminatory conditions imposed on Indians, preventing them from qualifying for the right to vote.


In___the Act for the Gradual Enfranchisement of Indiants granted power to the federal government to impose what?

-A system of elected local governments on Indian Bands.


What did this system of elected local governments on Indian Bands do to the Indian style of government?

Anyone considered unfit to hold office could be removed.


What were the bands who experienced "civilization" required to do?

Relinquish their traditional form of government


When was the Indian Act passed?



What was the Indian Act?

The Act included the earlier, colonial ideas of protecting the Indians. It also set out stricter requirements for non-Indian use of Indian lands. The goal was still assimilation. Its framework of Indian legislation remains largely unchanged today.


What did the government hope to use enfranchisement as? Why would they want this?

A way to assimilate the Indians into European-Canadian society. It would extinguish Indian culture and eliminate the need for government agencies to deal with the Indians.


What happened to an Indian's land once they were enfranchised?

The land allotted to him was no longer considered part of the reserve. Thus, when all Indians were enfranchised, the reserves would cease to exist.


What did the Superintendent have the power to determine?

Who was of good moral character and therefore deservent of certain benefits, such as deciding if the widow of an enfranchised Indian lives respectably and could therefore keep her children in the event of the father's death.


What did the confederation of Canada present the federal gvernment with in regards to dealing with laws and Aboriginal groups?

The challenge of uniting distinct and seperate Aboriginal groups under one law.


What kind of relationships did Confederation establish between Aboriginal people and settlers?

A very different relationship between these two groups by disregarding the interests and treaty rights of Aboriginal peoples and uniformly making them legally wards of the state.


What sum of money did the colony of Canada pay for the land in the Robinson Treaty?

Two thousand pounds for the land as well as six hundred pounds to be paid to the Chiefs and their tribes each year.


When was the payment for the Robinson Treaty due?

At a convenient season each year.


What did the First Nations have to give up with the Robinson Treaty?

They had to give up their right to the whole of the territory described, except for the reservations that were set forth in the treaty.


What does the Robinson Treaty say about about First Nations Land use (transfer of land, hunting, etc.)?

It says that the First Nations are still allowed to use their territory for their own common benefit. They are also allowed to lease or sell it with the consent of the Superintendent-General of Indian Affairs. they have the free privledge to hunt of the territory they now have and to fish in the waters.


What could the First Nations people not prevent (Robinson Treaty)?

Could not prevent peopel from exploring or searching for minderals or other valuable products in the territory granted to them by Her Majesty. They also can't object to the sale of mining locations or other property in the reserve that was negotiated before the agreement. However, they did get the money from the sale.


What was the maximum amount of money that a FN could be paid in a year (Robinson Treaty)?

The max amount of money could not exceed teh sum of one pound Provincial Currency, or any further sum as Her Majesty may be graciously pleased to order.


What would happen in Lake Nipissing and French River become part of the agreement (Robinson Treaty)?

The First Nations would receive the further sum of one hundred and sixty pounds Provincial Currency which would be paid in addition to the two thousand pounds.