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Flashcards in 5.3 Deck (47):

What did Rene Levesque go ahead with after the PQ win in 1976?

His promised separation got in 1980.


What was the result of the Quebec separatist vote in 1980?

The Quebec lost 59.6% to 40.4%.


What happened at the PQ's seventh nation convention from June 1-3, 1979?

The Sovereigntist adopted their strategy for the coming referendum. The PQ then began an aggressive effort to promote sovereignty-association by providing details of how the economic relations with the rest of Canada would work.


What did the PQ believe that their relationship with Canada would include after separation?

Free trade between Canada and Quebec, common tariffs against imports, and a common currency, joint political institutions would be established to administer these economic arrangements.


When was sovereignty-association proposed to the population of Quebec?

September 1980


When did Rene Levesque retire? What happened in the 1985 election?

-The PQ was defeated by the Liberal Party


What did Trudeau believe that patria ting the constitution would do in Quebec? What did it actually do?

Quell the growing separatist vote but it may have actually been a catalyst in the separatist movement.


When did Trudeau step down and who was he replaced by?

1984 and replaced with Liberal John Turner


Who came into power after John Turner called a fast election?

Brian Mulroney and his Conservative party.


What were the 5 points Robert Bourassa wanted included into the constitution in order for Quebec to remain and have no more separatist votes?

1) Veto power for Quebec on any constitutional amendments
2) Input for the province on the naming of justices to the Supreme Court of Canada
3) LImits on how the federal government spent funds in Quebec, so Quebec would not have to join programs that the federal government created but could created their own.
4) Quebec could dictate their own immigration
5) Recognition as a distinct society


What was the Meech Lake Accord

Premiers from around the country trying to find a way to include Quebec within the Constitution.


What happened at the Meech Lake Accord as opposed to what was expected to happen?

An early compromise instead of political deadlock


Did all provinces have to agree on the Meech Lake Accord? Why?

Yes because it involved a constitution change.


Which provinces didn't agree on the Meech Lake Accord? What group didn't agree?

Manitoba and Newfoundland
The Aboriginals


Which former PM was opposed to the Meech Lake Accord and why?

Pierre Trudeau because he said that Quebec should not be given distinct society status.


Who was the only Aboriginal in the legislature who would not allow Meech Lake Accord to go through because of the distinct society recognition for Quebec?

Elijah Harper


Who was Lucien Bouchard? What did he do?

Former cabinet minister for Brian Mulroney and he became the leader of the Bloc Québécois.


What is the goal of the Bloc?

Independence of Quebec from Canada.


What percentage of the votes in Quebec went to the Bloc? What did they become?

49% percent making them the official opposition in the House of Commons in Canada.


What was the Charlottetown Accord dubbed as?

The Canadian Round


What was Mulroney willing to give in to and allow and recognize at the Charlottetown Accord?

Give into the demands of Quebec, ready to allow the provinces to have treated power, and recognizing Aboriginal rights and self-government.


True or False: At the Charlottetown Accord, all of Canada would be asked if they agreed with the Charlottetown Accord?



What was the overall answer on the Charlottetown Accord from across Canada?



WHat did Elijah Harper believe?

Underlying belief was that great consultation should have occured between Ottawa and Aboriginal leaders, and that Aboriginals should have distinct society as well.


Who was Jacques Parizeau?

Elected in Quebec and he promised a sovereignty referendum.


What was the result of the 1995 vote on sovereignty in Quebec?

The no side won with 50.58% of the vote.


What is the Clarity Law? Who passed it and when?

Set out the conditions under which the Canadian gov't would recognize a vote by any province to leave Canada, among other things.
1999 by Prime MInister Jean Chretien


What did the Clarity Law require to trigger succession talks?

A majority of eligible voters for a vote to trigger secession talks, not merely a plurality of votes.


What did teh Clarity Law require to initiate secession talks? What did it give theHouse of Commons?

A clear question of secession to initiate secession talks. Gave the House of Commons the power to decide whether a proposed referendum question was considered clear, and allowed to decide whether a clear majority has expressed itself in any referendum.


What is the Clarity Act like today?

They federal government is in court trying to figure out what percentage is a win for the separatists. Many believe that 50%+1 is not high enough and the Supreme Court has said a substantial majority is necessary.


Why do you think Quebec wanted to be seen as a distinct societ? Do you think they should be recognized as a distinct society? Why or why not? Should First Nations, Inuit, and Metis have this as well?

1. I think that Quebec wanted to be seen as a distinct society because they wanted to protect their culture. No, I don’t think that they should be recognized as a distinct society because it is completely ridiculous. No, First Nations and Metis should not have this either. We are all a part of the society of Canada, which is a mixture of many cultural groups. It is what makes us unique. As long as we can recognize and respect that there are many different cultures, and treat every culture with equal respect than we should be fine.


If Quebec would be under the constitution how would this change the lives of Canadians in general?

2. If Quebec would be under the constitution, this would change the lives of Canadians because Quebec would have more power than any other province. But other than than, nothing would have really changed.


Why would Quebec's acceptance of the constitution be historically significant?

3. Quebec’s acceptance of the constitution would be historically significant because they were against it for so long, and had continued to fight against being in Canada.


Why did it appear the Meech Lake Accord would go through?

4. It appeared that the Meech Lake Accord would go through because it was expected that it would end in a political deadlock, but the ten premiers agreed to a package of amendments to the Constitution. They all signed the Meech Lake Accord in Ottawa.


Did all of the provinces agree with the Meech Lake Accord?

5. No, all the provinces did not agree. Manitoba and Newfoundland and Labrador did not agree.


What was the opposition to Meech Lake?

6. The opposition to the Meech Lake Accord was voiced very strongly by Pierre Trudeau who felt that it was ridiculous to have one province be recognized as a distinct society. Many people felt this too. Women’s rights groups and labour unions argued that the accord’s distinct society clause would allow Quebec to override the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms and deprive certain groups of their rights. Aboriginal organizations pointed out that if Quebec got to be a distinct society, than they should be allowed to as well. They were angry that they had not been consulted in the process. Some people in western Canada opposed the Meech Lake Accord because they felt alienated from central Canada and resented the additional powers the accord gave to Quebec. They argued that the agreement would make the provinces unequal.


Why was Meech Lake not passed?

7. The Meech Lake Accord was not passed because unanimous approval of the legislature was needed to allow further debate on the accord because the deadline. Elijah Harper, the only Aboriginal Member of the Legislative Assembly voted against allowing the debate. His vote stopped the proceedings, and as. Result, Manitoba could not approve the Meech Lake Accord. When this happened, Premier Clyde Wells withdrew his agreement to tallow the NFDL legislature more time to debate the accord and time ran out so the Accord failed.


Why is the formation of the Bloc Québécois so important?

8. The formation of the Bloc Québécois is so important because they were committed to the separation of Quebec from Canada. They received 49% of the Quebec vote in the 1993 federal election and obtained the second highest number of seats in the House of Commons and became the Official Opposition of Canada.


Why did Elijah Harper not agree with the Meech Lake Accord?

9. Elijah Harper opposed the Meech Lake Accord because Aboriginal Canadians were excluded from meetings about the proposed Meech Lake Accord and they became alarmed at the exclusion of Aboriginal peoples rights in the negotiations. He let Canadians know that Aboriginal rights must be included in any constitutional amendment.


Why did Mulroney want the Charlottetown Accord to be approved?

10. He wanted the Charlottetown Accord to be approved because he was determined to bring about a constitution change.


What did the role anti-Quebec feeling in other provinces have played in the failure of the Meech Lake and Charlottetown Accords? Do you think that anti0Quebec feelings were a major factor, or do you think other factors were more significant?

11. It tells us that ain't-Quebec feeling was one of the main players in the failure of both Accords. It tells us that the feeling was very strong. I don’t think that there was any other factor. The French and the English were always at each other’s throats. There were people in western Canada who were disillusioned by the federal government as well. They probably didn’t see why Quebec was getting special treatment.


How did people in 1990 judge the sifnificance of the failure of the Meech Lake Accord?

According to Andrew Cohen, people in 1990 judged the significance of the Meech Lake Accord failure by saying that Canada would not survive its death.


Twenty years after the failure of the Meech Lake accord, what was its histrorical significance?

The significance of the Accord was that it showed use that it is almost impossible to change our constitution—and dangerous to try, and that the people were right, the political class was wrong and that our Canada takes a lot of killing.


In May 2010 how has the mood of separatism changed or has it?

13. In May 2012, 58% of Quebecois believed that the sovereignty debate was outmoded while 26% believed it was more relevant than ever. Other opinion polls consistently show that if another referendum were held, roughly 40% of Quebecois would vote for sovereignty.


Why did Quebec Premier Lucien Bouchard state that the Calgary Declaration showed that Canada would not make any of the changes that Quebec wanted?

14. Premier Lucien Bouchard stated that the Calgary Declaration showed that Canada would not make any of the changes that Quebec wanted because he said that it was meaningless to suggest that the Quebecois were unique like all other Canadians.


Created a timeline that includes four or five events in the history of the constitutional debate from 1989 to the present. For each event on the timeline, add a note explaining the event's historical significance/

Meech Lake Accord (1987)- Amend the constitution—try to bring Quebec in by making them a distinct society. Formation of the Bloc Québécois- Became Canada’s Official Opposition in the 1993 election. Charlottetown Accord (1992)- Second attempt to amend the constitution. Was also voted down. Quebec Referendum of Sovereignty (1995)- Quebec vote on whether they should separate or not. The no side won. The Calgary Declaration (1997)- A unity package that would let Quebec be recognized as a unique society but that all Canadians are equal and that all provinces have equal status. Quebec did not agree.


Why was the recognition of the Quebecois as a nation within a United Canada historically significant? Did Parliament's approval of the motion suggest that Canadians might be ready to recognize Quebec as a distinct society?

Yes it was historically significant because it finally shut them up. I think that it did finally suggest that Canadians might be read to recognize Quebec as a distinct society because for the first time they didn’t just say no—they compromised.