Flashcards in 3.5 Deck (45):
What is private funding? What is public funding?
Public- Government run, taxpayer $
Private- Individual funding
What kind of funding did Macdonald need for the railway?
Privately because he didn't want to increase taxes as it was hard for a new and young country.
Who did John A assign the contract to build the railway to?
Businessman, Sir Hugh Allen
When did the Liberal party find documents proving Macdonald had been bribed by Allen?
Who was the richest man in Canada?
Sir Hugh Allen
What was the Pacific Scandal?
The Liberals, under Alexander Mackenzie, attacked the generaous contract given to Allen and the bribe. This brought John A Macdonald's government down.
Who became the second Prime Minister of Canada? While in power, what major thing did he do with the railway?
-He stalled the building of the transcontinental railway in attempt to have it publically funded. He struggled because Quebec couldn't see the point in the railway to BC.
What hit Canada after the Liberals took power?
An economic depression
When did Macdonald come back into power?
How did Macdonald win the election?
By calling for the National Policy and an urgent need for the railway to British Columbia.
When was the CPR contract awarded and to whom?
1880, tax exempt, to George Stephan and Charles Smith.
How much did George Stephen and Charles Smith receive?
$25 million chash subsidy from the government and a monopoly on rail traffic for a period of 20 years.
When and what did Macdonald promise BC?
A rail link that owuld be build in 10 years.
When was the railway finished?
1885 (took 14 years)
For how long did John A enable to conservative party to maintain an almost uninterrupted control of the Canadian government?
Almost two decades
What brought Macdonald's reign to an end?
Mounting storms of economic adversity, rebellion, federal-provincial conflict,, and racial tensions.
Who came to Liberal leadership in 1887?
Sir Wilfred Laurier
When did the Conservatives win back the election from Sir Wilfred Laurier's government?
What was John A's campaign slogan around 1891?
"the old man, the old flag, the old policy"
How old was John A when he died? How many months after the election?
At the age fo 76, three months after the election.
Who were the conservative leaders that followed John A and their years?
1891-1892: Sir John Abbott
1892-1894: Sir John Thomas
1894-1896: Mackenzie Bowell
1896: Charles Tupper (father of confederation in Halifax and lost the election because of the Manitoba School Questions).
In what year did the conservatives fall to defeat after 18 years in power?
1896 after 18 years in power.
What was the problem with the Conservatives and the Manitoba Schools Question?
They couldn't solve it. It was the first challenge for the new Prime Minister, Sir Wilfred Laurier.
Over how many Chinese men were hired by the CPR to build the railway?
How many Chinese labourers are estimated to have died?
What kinds of tasks were the Chinese given?
Dynamite blasting tunnels and cliff-scalling
What did the Chinese make a day and what did they have to purchase for themselves vs the Canadian workers?
Chinese- $1.00/day, plus they paid for food, camping gear, and cooking supplies.
Whites- $1.50-$2.00/day plus I'm assuming they had everything else provided to them.
It is said that for every___in BC___Chinese worker died.
What was the Chinese Head Tax?
A fixed fee charged to each Chinese person entering Canada. It was mean to discourage people from entering Canada after the completion of the CPR.
How much was the head tax?
When was the Chinese Head Tax abolished and by whom?
Chinese Immigration Act of 1923 which stopped Chinese immigration altogether as thought of WWI and communism in China.
How did the CPR change lives of Canadians for the better and for the worse?
Better: Created a more united Canada, helped the economy, convinced other to join Confederation which increased land area and helped prevent American expansion.
Worse: Damaged relations with the FN and Metis and Inuit peoples, political scandals
Why do people say that finishing the railway was the most importent moment in Canada's history?
Because, more than anything, the railway is credited with forming the nation of Canada because of how it united the country from "sea to sea".
What two provisions did Macdonald offer the Mennnonite community and why do you believe he did?
He offered them exemption from military services as well as permitted them to have their own schools. I believe that he did this because of the massive amount of French speakers coming to the West. He wanted to increase of population of non French speakers. They were also probably good farmers and they believed in pacifism, and Macdonald was looking to have a peaceful colony out west--no violence.
Why might Laurier's vision of Canada be less centered on Britain than Macdonald?
Because he was French and the French-Canadians have always felt very unattatched from Britain and France. They have always felt very strongly about the fact that they wre Canadians. They did not have the strong pull to Britain, as the Canadians with British roots did.
What changes did all of the European and American immigrants bring to Canada? In what ways did their arrival show continuity?
The chagnes were diversity of religion, previousl Romand Catholic and Protestant only, as well as changes in language. Their arrival shows continuity because people had been coming to Canada for a better chance, the prosepect of a better life, since the first explorers. People were curious about this land.
What was the impact of the head tax?
Prevent many Chinese peopel from coming to Canada and it gave Canada a very bad image for future people. It impacted teh Chinese peopel who were already here because they couldn't afford to bring their family over and it cut off some ethnic diversity that Canada could have had.
How did Chinese immigrants fit into the Canadian government's vision of Canada? What ethical questions arise from how they were treated?
They weren't white, they weren't Christians. They didn't fit in the mold. Ethichal questions such as racist acts demonstrated against an entire group because of how they were white.
Does racism still play a role in Canada's immigration policy?
While Canada no longer keeps out immigrants due to race, there are still some elements of discrimination such as no immigrant officers in the states of developing countries so people in these countries are in effect excluded from Canada unless they are able to travel to a distant immigration office in another country. Also, the number of applicants being processed at an overseas immigration post can be easily regulated merely by the size of staff assigned to the task.
What did Canadian immigrants of the early twentieth century have in commonwith immigrants who came to North American colonies, such as Nouvelle-France, in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries? What do they share with today's immigrants, if anything?
They came with the promise of a better life. They came for farmland as did peopel who came in the twentieth century. Many were fleeing bad situations in their mother countries and Canada offered the chance of a peaceful and prosperous life. They share that with the immigrants of today.
What minerals did Canada have that were highly valued in the late 19 hundreds? What impact did this have on Canada?
Gold, copper, coal, silver, asbestos, nickel, gypsum, salt, iron ore, lead, zinc.
Their impact was that larger mine companies formed. Across the country discoveries of substantial mineral deposits led to the opening of many permanent mines, providing employment ot thousands. Many of the communities that sprang up around the mines became established towns and cities.
Why was hydroelectricity so important to Canada at the time?
Because it provided power for the growing number of mills and factories. It established Quebec and Ontario and the heartland of Canadian manufacturing since the majority of plants were in these provinces. They became a major source of power and contributed to the development of pulp and paper mills, smelting, and mining. It became an established part of Canada's economy and, by 1920, was producing more than 97% fo electricity generated in Canada.
List the major changes in Canada during post-confederation? How did these changes affect the lives of Canadians? Inw hat ways did they stay the same?
Changes: natural resources bein gharvested and exported, minerals, hydroelectricity, and economic growth (wheat sales, railroads, pulp and paper industries, and forestry). These chagnes affected the lives of Canadians becuase they changed a primarily rural country, where things were made naturally and other goods were imported, into a country where they were developing, growing, and exporting many resources. This changed the lives of Canadians because it increaed the wealth of Canada which resulted in higher wages. The lives of Canadians still remained the same because they continued to farm and develop their own resources, they wer ejust harvesting and developing more of and different resources.
What economic development disucces has been of the most historically significant to Canada?
I think that it was the development of the agriculture industry because it is something that Canada is recognized for worldwide.