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Flashcards in 2.3 Deck (54):

Between 1815 and 1855, how many people immigrated to North America?

one million


Which two groups of people held significant control over the decision making process?

Political and economic elites


What two revolutions influenced political thoughts by all groups?

The French and American Revolutions


What are the five things the ruling oligarchies believed?

1) They feared and despised revolution
2) Ordinary people are unable to control society as they are ill-educated and incapable of sensible decisions
3) Threat to property and order
4) Educated and enlightened elites should rule
5) Keep appointed people more powerful that the elected


What did the People believe?

1) They admired the will of the people
2) Governments should be responsible to the people
3) Most decisions should be made in an elected assembly
4) Governments should represent all people
5) Governments should be accountable through elections


By early___colonist in Upper and Lower Canada began to demand more what? What resulted?

-They began to demand more and more freedom to govern themselves.
- Political deadlock ensued because those who held power wanted to keep it


By what year did revellions start in Upper and Lower Canada?



Between what two years were Upper and Lower Canada thrown into turmoil because of rebellions?



The revolt in Upper or Lower Canada was more serious and violent?

Lower Canada


What did the rebellions help inspire? **What kind paper?

The Durham Report


What did the Durham Report lead to?

It lead to the union of the two colonies, and the arrival of responsible government.


Who was the Rebellion in Lower Canada led by?

Louis Papineau and the Partiotes as well as more moderate French Canadian nationalists who together dominated the Legislative Assembly.


Why didn't Louis Papineau and others have a say in Legislative Assembly?

Their wishes were overthrown by the non elected house.


What did the house want?

To make sure te British views were upheld at all times.


What were the political demands of Lower Canada (Patriotes)? Were their demands accepted or rejected in London?

Included democratic pleas for Responsible Government. Their demands were rejected in London.


What led to protest rallies across the colony and eventual calls by the more radical Partiotes for armed insurrection?

Economic depression for French Canadian farmers in the 1830s, plus rising tensions with the largely Anglophone minority.


When did the first bout of violence in Lower Canada come?

November, 1837


Who was the first bout of violence in Lower Canada between? Who won and why?

-A series of skirmishes and battles between Patriot rebels and British regulars as well as Anglophone volunteers.
-The disorganized rebels were defeated.


What did the defeat of the Patriot's followed by?

It was followed by widespread Anglophone looting and burnin of French Canadian settlements.


What happened to Papineau and other rebel leaders? Where did they go?

They fled to the US.


When was a second rebellion launched? Who helped?

-November 1838
-American volunteers


Why didn't the second rebellion work?

It was poorly organized and quickly put down, followed by further looting and devestation in the countryside.


How many people died in the Rebellions? How many were Patriots and how many were British? How many rebels were captured?

-325 people dead, mostly rebels with 27 British as well
-Nearly 100 rebels were also captured.


Where did Papineau go after the second rebellion failed?

He departed the US for exile in Paris.


Who was the rebellion in Upper Canada led by? Describe him.

-William Lyon Mackenzie, a Scottish-born newspaper publisher and politician who was a fierce critic of the family compact.


What did Mackenzie and his followers oppose?

A system of land grants that favored settlers from Britain, as opposed to those with ties to the US--many of whom wer ealso denied political rights.


In what year did Mackenzie convince his radical follower to try to seize control of the government? What did he want to declare it as?

- 1837


How many people (what was their origin) gathered for___days? When and where did they gather?

-December at Montgomery's tabern on Yonge Street in Toronto


What was wrong with Mackenzie's men?

They were drunk and poorly armed.


When did Mackenzie's men march south on Yonge Street?

December 5, 1837


How many marched south on Yonge Street?

Several hundred


Describe what happened on Yonge Sreet?

Several hundred poorly armed and organized rebels marched south on YOnge Street and exchanged gunfire with a smaller group of loyalist militia. The bulk of the rebel force fled in a state of confusion once the firing started.


What happened 3 days after Yonge Street? What happened to the border? How long did it happen for?
What happened to Mackenzie?

The full rebel group was dispersed by loyalists from the tavern. Mackenzie and other rebel leaders fled to the US where, with the help of American volunteers, various rebel groups launched raids against Upper Canada, keeping the border in a state of turmoil for nearly a year.


Could Mackenzie have taken the group of Yonge Street? Why did his men flee?

-They could have taken the group of Yonge Street
-They got scared


When the British sensed that they were losing control of Upper and Lower Canada, who did they appoint to recommend solutions to the problems?

Governor Lord Durham


What two suggestions did Lord Durham make for the problems that called the rebellion?

1) Responsible government and the union of Upper and Lower Canada's legislatures into one.
2) He suggested that representation would be based on population


Was the population of Upper Canada or Lower Canada growing faster?

Upper Canada's population was growing much faster.


What were the four problems with the Durham report?

1) Durham wrote teh report after having been in Canada for a short period of time.
2) Upper Canada had more influence in teh writing of the report.
3) Assimilation was the major goal of the report.
4) It was culturally biased against the values of the French Canadians and First Nations


What was the Act of Union? When was it wrote?

-The Act of the Union abolished teh legislatures of Lower Canada and Upper Canada and united them into the Province of Canada
- 1840


Act of the Union: What was the new name of Upper Canada and what was the new name of Lower Canada?

Upper Canada: Canada West
Lower Canada: Canada East


Who and when were the reformers? Who were they led by?

-led by Baldwin and Hincks in Canada West and Lafontaine in Canada East.
-They won a large majority in the elections and were asked by the governor, Lord Elgin, to form a ministroy which removed the power of patronage from the governor.


With the granting of____government,____in each colony set out to address specific areas of ____and impose_____. In Canada's, the focus was on____progress and____reforms.



What did the reformers advocate for?

responsible government


What culminated the Rebellions of 1837 and 1838?

Struggle between the oligarchies and the elected assemblies (reformers) in both Upper Canada and Lower Canada.


What characterized British North Americanlife during the first half of the 19th century?

Economic uncertainties and political instability


What did the conditions of life in British North America force British North Americans into? What were the consequences?

Seeking new political and economic solutions. The consequences of seeking these new solutions was Confederation and the National Policy.


How do you think members of the oligarchies justified their hold on power?

I think that members of the oligarchies justified their hold on power because they made it seem like they were the most knowledgable becasue they were educated. Their priorities benefited the buisnesses and helped them grow which would be good for the economy. Also, they were able to say that theywere listening to people as they had elected officials even though the elected officials didn't have much say.


Why were newspapers such an important force in spreading the reform message/how would a message for change be promoted today?

Newspapers were an important part in spreading the reform message becasue everyone read them. It really was the most important way to spread information. Today, a message for change would be promoted on television and most likely social media.


How might the interaction between William Lyon Mackenzie and Sir Francis Bond Head affect events leading to the revellions?

The interaction between these personalities might affect the rebellion because they are bot headstrong and believe that their view is right. There is no give and take.


Who was Sir Francis Bond Head?

Appointed lieutenant-governor for Upper Canada in December 1835.


In what ways were the views of the les Fils de la Liberte in 1837 similar to the demands of the American patriots in 1776? What does this tell you about changes and continuities in British colonial rule?

-the les Fils de la Liverte were a radical Lower Canadian rebel group
The views of Les Fils de la Liberte were similar to the American Patriots because they mention that any claim to govern according to a divine or absolute authority is ridiculous. They say that the authority of a mother country can exist only as long as it pleases the inhabitants of that country and that because of the mother country they are now in a state of poverty and conserved all that was defective in their former institutes. This tells you that the colonies in North America would continue to be the same unless people recognize and demand the need for change.


How do you think Canadiens would have responded to Lord Durham's comments about their culture?

The Canadiens would have responded very poorly to Lord Durham's comments. They have, since Britain conquered Canada, felt as if Britain was trying to assimilate them. They would see Lord Durhams's comments as the British, once again, disrespecting their culture and history.


Why was the Act of the Union important?

The Act of the Union was imoortant because it united Upper and Lower Canada into one colony: The Province of Canada. The colony was to have one governor, oen elected assembly, and one language--English--in the legislature. There were more French Canadiens than English Canadians so Britain decised that Canada East and Canada WEst woul dhave an equal number of representation in teh elected assembly because that is how Britain rolls.


What events do you think caused Lord Elign to sign the Rebellion loses into law?

I believe the two events would have been the rebellions in Canada as they led to great unrest in the country. As the majority of Lower Canada was French they wouldn't want them to revot again or leave and joing the Thirteen Colonies.