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Flashcards in 3.2 Deck (53):

In 1871, what did Canada look to the west for?

1) resources
2) immigration


What were the lands deals that Macdonal pursued with the FN called?



What did the FN think that the Canadian government was taking responsibility for?

The protection and well-being of FN people in exchanged for "shared usage" of the land.


What was the government seeking sole ownership of the land for? (3 things)?

1) immigration
2) railways
3) agriculture


What was the state of the FN at this time?

They were struggling, starving. They heard what happened to FN in U.S and were looking for protection.


What did the government promise the FN in exchange for the land?

health care
hunting and fishing rights
tax exemption (only for FN living on reserves)
agriculture (livestock and new tools)
**you had to be on a reserve for all of this


What was the biggest pressure that forced FN chiefs into signing treaties?



Who was the chief in 1876 that refused to sign the treaties?

Big Bear


Why didn't Big Bear want to sign the treaty?

He said that "when we set a fox-trap we scatter pieces of meat all round, ut when the fox gets into the trap we nowck him on the head; We want no bait; let your chiefs come like men and talk to us.


When did BIg Bear sign the treaty and why?

1882 because his people were starving and dying of disease.


Where did many Metis go and why?

Duck Lake and Prince Albert because they faced racism and delays with land grants


The Metis were fearing for their land, what did they do?

Called on the government to gaurantee their lands settlements but each time their calls went unanswered.


Why did people begin to try to purchase what was already Metis land?

It was clsoe to the CPR


How many million buffalo had been hunted off the prairies bu 1885?

20 millon


What did Metis people fear?

That they would be forced onto reserve lands.


Why did the Metis try to acquire when they first moved to the Batoche are?

legal title to the land but they were denied by Canada or Canada never responded to these requests.


Why were local white settlers angry around 1885 in Batoche?

lack of assistance from the government and that the CPR was built hundreds of miles to the south


Who persuaded Louis Riel to return to Canada?

Gabriel Dumont, the military leader of the Metis.


When did all attempts to negotiate with John A go unanswered specifically?

March 19, 1885


When did the Metis created the provisional government of Saskatchewan?

March 19, 1885


What was different from the Red River Revellion in 1870 to the North-West Rebellion in 1885 in terms of transportation?

There was a railway and so Ontario officials can get there much sooner.


Who was the Batoche rebellion a conflict between?

The Metis and the Canadian government


What group of people found themselves caught in the middle of the Batoche Rebellion?

The First Nations
Some wanted to fight with the Metis, but most wanted to stay out of teh action for fear of reprisal from the government.


When was the Battle of Duck Lake? Briefly explain what happened.

March 26, 1885
The NWMP were looking for Riel and trying to intercept Metis warriors and disarm them. Fighting breaks out after NWMP translator got scaared and fired the first shot at Isodore Dumont, killing him instantly. After 40 minutes, Crozier's force (NWMP) is decimated and he retreats.


Who many warriors did the Metis have at the battle of Duck lake, how many died and how many were woulnded. How many officers did the NWMP have at the Battle of Duck Lake. How many were killed and how many were wounded?

Metis- 200 warriors. 5 dead, 1 wounded.
NWMP- 90 officers. 12 dead, 16 wounded.


What did Big Bear want?

He pleaded with his warriors not to harm white men because he wanted to settle things peacefully and knew the Canadian government had many men.


Who was Wandering Spirit and what was his mood towards the issue?

Big Bear's nephew and he was in no mood for peace.


Who supported Wandering Spirit?

The Metis who encouraged him to attack government officials.


How many men died at Frog Lake?

9 white men dead, including 1 Indian Agent and 2 Priests


Who did Wandering Spirit and his band of Cree take hostage?

Thomas Quinn, their Indian Agent who was harsh and arrogant. They held him hostage in his home.


When did the Cree then take more white settlers hostage?

early morning of April 2


Where did the Cree gather the Europeans on April 2?

At a local Catholic church, which included 2 priests, where mass was in progress.


What did the Cree order their prisoners to do around 11 when mass was over?

Move to a Cree encampment a couple of kilometers away.


What happened to Thomas Quinn?

He refused to leave the town and so Wandering Spirit shot him in the head.


Who were the two Catholic priests that died?

Leon Fafard and Felix Marchand.


Who were the eight other white men that died?

John Williscroft, John Gowanlock, John Delany, William Gilchrist, George Dill, and Charles Couin


Who was WIlliam Beasdell Cameron?

One of the men rounded up into the church who went to the HBC shop to fill an order made by Quinn for Miserable Man after the mass. When the first shots were fired, he escaped with the help of a sympathetic Cree and made his way to a nearby Wood Cree camp, where the chief pledged to rpotect him.


Who were Theresa Gowanlock and Theresa Delaney?

Wives of two of the slain men who, along with their families and approximately seventy others, were taken captive.


Where did the Cree move on to?

Fort Pitt


Who were the seven other warriors with Wandering Spirit who were convicted of treason for the Frog Lake Massacre? What happened to them?

Round the Sky, Bad Arrow, Miserable Man, Iron Body, Little Bear, Crooked Leg, and Man Without Blood.
They were hanged, along with two other Cree convincted of murder, in the larges mass execution in Canadian history.


What was Big Bear Charged and sentenced with?

Charged with treason and sentenced to three years. He was dying and he was released early and died on his reserve.


Why do you think the Metis population fell from 83% of the total population in 1870, the year Manitoba became a procinve, to just 7% in 1886.

I would conclude that the main cause of the change was the increase in English speaking Protestant people to the area. The Metis people probably felt as if they no longer belonged, and sought a place where their culture could thrive.


In what ways was the Manitoba Act historically significant?

The Manitoba Act was historically signigicant because it outline the ill treatment of the Metis and First Nations people in Manitoba. They were never given their lands, and the effects of the act caused many Metis and FN to have hurt feelings and fight for justice (rebellions, Louis Riel). The Manitoba Act kind of made Louis Riel a hero as well.


What were the consequences for Canada of the Manitoba Act and of the Metis westward migration to the North-West Territories?

The incorporation of Manitoba into Confederation, another place where French language rights were recognized, a place where Roman Catholics had education rights, the small size of the province hinted at Ottawa's desire to control the west.


Why did the Metis declare a provisional government and why why Riel not given a role?

The Metis declared a provisional government becaue th egovernment did not grant the petition that Riel and William Henry Jackson had outined about people's rights and grievances. The government didn't take their requests seriously. Louis Riel didn't get an official role in government because he was not well liked amongst the English Protestants. they probably thought that they would have a better shot if he was behind the scenes and he was also wanted for murder I believe.


Compare the events that led to the North-West resistance to those that led to the Confederation of Manitoba. How were they the same? What was different?

Similar: both included Metis wanting to fight for their rights; predominately led by Metis leaders, such as Louis Riel; oth over land use; both included the creation of a provisional government; both concerned that land was to be taken away (confederation: westward expansion, NW resistance concerned with the amount of English protestants forcing them out with their racist ways).
Different: NW resistance other factors such as the loss of the bison, steamboats being used for trade (decreasing Metis jobs), caused hunger and hard times in the Metis communities; the CPR also played a factor in the NW resistance as it passed by many Metis communities increasing the value of the land; with confederation it was mostly based on Metis retaining their land.


Who was the Metis List of Rights from 1870 significant in terms of what happened in the NW resistance?

In terms of what happened in the NW resistance because many of the reasons that the NW resisitance happened is because the wants that were outlined in that document were ignored such as the one about properties, rights, and privileges enjoyed by all people of the province be respected, and the local legislature shall have full control over the public lands. While this may be true for white settlers, the Metis and FN were ignored.


Which consequences of the hanging of Louis Riel are most significant today?

The consequences that I think are most significant today would be the affects that it had on the Metis community as they felt as if their culture and traditions were once again disrespected. I also think that the most important factor was the wish for Quebec's autonomy because that is still in place today in the minds of some people.


Do you think the view of Riel from his own time accurately assessed his significance as a historical figure? If he had not been executed, do you think ideas about him today would be different?

I don't think that Riel was accurately represented in the views of those from his time. those people have idfficulties seeing him with regards to another perspective. It was black or white with them. He was either a saviour, or a murderous revel. They didn't fully understand the impact that he would have on canada in the years to come. If he had not been executed, I do think that view on him owuld be different. When people are executed for something like rebellion, we tend to look at them as martyrs. If he had survived, I do believe that he would not be looked upon with as much historical significance.


Have perspectives on Louis Riel changed? Why?

I think that perspectives on Riel have changed slightly. While we still do view him as slightly crazy and insane, we also view him as we would view a her. Maybe its not how we view him, but our ability to view him as more than one things that has changed.


What was the historical significance of the NW resistance?

It outlined how Metis were to be treated in years to come. They lsot two of their most vocal leaders and struggled to survive. They lost their hope for land and freedom and were forced to accept what little they were offered by the Canadian government. Many were forced to abandon their traditional culturea dn adopt a more European culture in order to survive. This went on for many years, and it wasn't until much later taht an honest effort was made to reapir the poisoned relationship between the Metis and the Canadian government.


Why was the gederal government's approach to Metis people and thie rpetitions different from their approach to FN on the prairies?

Their approach was different because the FN and Europeans had a long and tumultous history with each other. There was a mutual respect that had been established many years before. The FN also had some form of claim to the land whereas the Metis had non. The government had to appease te FN to get what they wante, they didn't have to with the Metis.


How would you view each leader if you were a Metis person living in St. Laurent in 1885: Louis Riel and Garbriel Dumont? What were their strengths and weaknesses?

I would have seen Dumont as the instigator, and Riel as a symbolic, yet very useful, figure. Louis Riel had an image: he was the face of Metis rights in Canada. Dumont, however, was one of the people who recognized the need for Riel and brought him back. He led the small Metis military forces during the NW resistance. I would say that his strengths were military leadership and political thinking. But I would have to say that Riel was stronger than him when it came time to man up and take a challenge as Dumont fled to the US, fearing an unfair trial, whereas RIel stood his ground come what may.