Flashcards in 4.3 Deck (50):
Why the twenties "booming"? (7 things).
-fast growth in industry, manufacturing, and cities
-political movements arose out of the Ideale of Soviet Russia, socialist movements in France, and anti-war sentiments in general extended their influence into Union and farmers organizations
-immigration filled up empty space and kept the railways busy
-lumber and fisheries boomed
-credit was introduced (buy now pay later)
What was an illegal industry that would make many rich?
Prohibition in the US and smuggling alcohol across the border became a fortune which made many rich.
When did the stock market crash?
October 29, 1929
What were the causes of the depression (4 things)?
-unused productive resour Es
-business failures on a large scale
-all major trading partners quite trading
How much did our foreign trade account for our national income?
1/3 (due to natural resources)
Where in Canada was hit the hardest during the depression?
How many farmers left the prairies?
Nearly 250 000
When was prime minister Mackenzie King defeated and who was he replaced by?
1930 by W.B Bennett
What was the result of the depression?
The social and the political problems that were caused gave rise to new political movements where the people of Canada were looking for government to secure the well being of the citizens.
What is speculation in finance?
A financial action that does not promise safety of the initial investment along with the return on the principal sum.
What speculation typically involve?
The lending of money for the purchase of assets, equity, or debt.
What happened on Black Tuesday?
The average stock price dropped in values by 12% this caused panic stock selling. The Canadian Stock Exchange was losing $1 million in value every minute.
Who did the people turn to for relief?
The government ($1.5 million) but little was there, and soon the government were piling up record debts.
What were the unemployment rates in Canada:
What is isolationism?
In response to the depression, most governments chose to protect their own economies by resuming to trade with other countries. In hindsight, most experts believe this was a mistake and further caused economic collapse. It was also blinded the world to the actions of Hitler in Germany.
When was the riot in Estevan?
September 29, 1931
When had the miners in Estevan been on strike since?
September 7, 1931 to improve their wages and working conditions
Who was the riot in Estevan been organized by?
The Communist Party of trade union umbrella
How many were killed in the Estevan riot?
What was economic production primarily based on?
Agriculture, factory, and mine production
What were strike breakers?
Companies hired these people to intimidate union leaders.
When did Mackenzie King serve as Prime Minister?
1921-1926, 1926-1930, 1935-1948
Why was Mackenzie King such a good prime minister?
He was resistant to outside interference which resulted in Britain's recognition that Canada was autonomous in domestic and external affairs in the 1920s. Under King, Canada became a modern industrial nation. He was able to demand a voice for his country in international affairs, and this level of influence was obvious in the growing connection between Canada and the US. Close relationship between King and President Roosevelt.
When was R.B Bennett prime minister?
What was R.B Bennett known for?
What were some of the things that Bennett did?
He placed Tarrifs to protect central Canada but this hurt the west and the Maritimes, he was an advotate for unemployment insurance, old age pension, fights to form unions, and government agencies to support formers.
What did Bennett bring in during the Depression?
Large expensive programs for public works to create jobs as well for direct relief, running up simulative deficits, introduced unemployment relief but the way it was assessed led many not to take part in programs that during the depression where necessary
Who created the Bank of Canada, the CBC, and the Canadian Wheat Board?
When was the Communist party founded and what was it based on?
1921 and based on the success and ideas of Vladimir Lenin in Russia
When was the Communist Party banned and why?
1931 as the government believed that labourers should share in the success of the corporations they were working for.
What was the Communist Propaganda Act?
In 1937 Quebec passed it and it would close any business that printed communist propaganda.
What were work camps?
They were supposed to be relief camps for individuals that could not find work. They had low paying jobs that were mostly make work projects from the federal government (bulding bridges, rail lines, national parks, etc.)
What was the real purpose of the work camps?
They were supposed to hide the men in far off areas away from cities where they tended to organize and make "trouble" for the police and government.
What were the conditions in the work camp?
Poor. Work days were long, standard was 8 hours but some days were 12-14 hours. Only made 20 cents per hour.
-food was poor
-recreation facilities were lacking
-tents and bunkhouses were without stoves
-second blankets were rare
-isolationism but that was the point
What is On To Ottawa?
Organized by the communist party in 1935 to try and have the government improve conditions at the camps.
Did the federal government negotiate with the strikers in On To Ottawa?
No. at a. Huge organizing meeting strikers voted to take their ocmplaints directly to Parliament Hill
When did the first group of On To Ottawa climb on board the boxcars and left Vancouver?
June 3, 1935
What happened when the train reached Regina?
Bennett decided to put and end to it and the CPR was ordered to ban the Trekkers as trespassers. The federal cabinet directed teh RCMP to strengthen the troops in Regina. Led to the Regina riot.
What happened in the Regina Riot
The RCMP and Regina city police were ordered to attack a public meeting of 3000 gathered in support of the strikers.
How many were dead and injured by the evening of July 1, 1935 in the Regina Riot? How much money in property damage.
1 dead and several hundred injured. There was several thousands of dollars of property damage that left downtown Regina in units.
What did the events of the Reginal Riot do to Bennett's Conservative government?
Discredit them and in the 1935 election his party went from holding 134 seats to just 39.
What happened after the Regina Riot as a show of peace? What soon happened to the camps?
The government provided free transportation as a peace sign back to the camps. The camps were soon dismantled and replaced by seasonal relief camps run by the provinces and that paid the men slightly more for their labour than the earlier camps.
Who came back into power after Bennett?
What were some cause of the depression?
Buying on credit
Borrowed to much money
Demand and price for wheat dropped quickly
People had less money so they bought less
Banks and companies began to demand that loans be paid and people began selling their stocks so provinces around the world dropped sharply
Stock market crash
Protective tariffs choked off international trade
What was the impact of the depression on Canada? Did it change from region to region?
It caused unemployment. In 1928, the rate in Canada was 2.6% and by 1933 it was 26.6%. The regions that suffered the most were the Atlantic and prairie regions becaue they were the major produces and they produced too much so no one would buy their goods.
What was the impact of the depression on the prairies?
Very bad. In the 30s there was a drought which caused dust storms. the wheat prices in 1928 was 80 cents a bushel but by 1935 it was down to 35 cents a bushel. the grasshoppers also destroyed the crops. Farmers could not afford the basic necessities.
How would you descrive people's attitudes towards government assistance? Have they changed today?
I don't think that peopel really thought that the government was helping them at all. While I think that they appreciated it, I think that most people thought that the government could do more to help them than they were. I don't think that attitudes have changed much. We always tend to want more than we get and to think that we are being treated unfairly whether it is true or not. That is just basic human nature.
Why did people's fear of communism affect their attitudes towards all efforts to imporove conditions for workers? Do you think that their fears were reasonable, given their ircumstances such as growing labour unrest, large numvers of unemployed , and the example of the communist revolution in Russia in 1917?
People's fear of communism affected their attitudes towards efforts to improve conditions for workers becaue they were influenced by the government's attitude to fear communism. I think that the way the government reacted played a big part into how people view communism, I think that their fears were reasonable because they saw what happened in Russia and the party's plan was pretty extreme (overthrowing the government).
What were work camps and why were they set up?
Work camps were set up for single, unemployed men. They were set up to suppress radical political activity to prevent them from rioting or protesting publically.