Flashcards in 4.5 Deck (60):
What was Isolationism in relation to WWII?
WWI had been so costly that western powers began to isolate themselves from the rest of the world. They were reluctant to intervene in international disagreements.
What was appeasement?
Britain and the world believed if they allow Hitler freedom to unify the Germans and rebuild his army, Germany would turn into a productive country, so they turned a blind eye to what Hitler was doing.
What were the 7 reasons the League of Nations failed?
1) Weak- the league's "powers" we're little more than owing "tut-tut". Sanctions did not work, it had no army.
2) America- the strongest nation in the world never joined.
3) Structure- the league was muddled, so it took ages to do anything. Members' couldn't agree--but decisions had to be unanimous.
4) Depression- countries were worried about themselves, not world peace.
5) Unsuccessful- the more the league failed, the less people trusted it.
6) Members- the league's main members let it down. Italy and Japan betrayed the league, France and Britain did nothing to help it.
7) Big bullies- the the 1920s, the Leage had dealt with weak countries. In the 1930s, powerful countries like Germany, Italy, and Japan attacked weaker countries. They were too strong for the league to stop them.
When did Britain declare war on Germany?
September 10, 1939
When did the Battle of Britain take place?
Between July and September of 1940
How did the Battle of Britain begin? What happened?
It began when the Luftwaffe attempted to gain control of the Straits of Dover. They wanted to tempt the RAF out for a full-scale battle. By the end of July, the RAF had lost 150 aircraft and the Luftwaffe had lost 268. The Luftwaffe started night time bombing raids on cities. On SEptember 15, the Luftwaffe lost 60 planes and the RAF lost 28. On September 17, Hitler postponed indefinitely the invasion of Britain.
What were four reasons the Germans lost the Battle of Britain?
1. They fought too far away from their bases so refuelling and rearming were impossible.
2. British fighters could land, refuel and rearm quickly.
3. The change of targets was crucial. Fighter Command was only 24 hours away from the defeat when the attack on the cities occured. Breathing space this fave Fighter Command was crucial
4. The Hurricane adnSpitfire were exceptional planes capable of taking on the might of the Luftwaffe.
What was the objective of Dieppe?
To secure the town for one day, capture German officers and battle plans and leave.
How many dead at Dieppe? How many casualities? How many POWs?
Which German army division had the town of Ortona?
They were sent to take the town defended by Hitlers vaunted German 1st Parachute
How many Canadians died at Ortona? How many were wounded? What was the civilian death toll from the town's population?
-502 Canadian deaths
-1300 civilians dead from a town of 10 000
What was the largest amphibious invasion in the history of war?
Normandy: Operation Overlord
How many soldiers landed on the beaches of Normandy?
What were the beaches? What countries landed on each? What were their numbers?
Utah Beach- 23250 American
Omaha Beach- 34250 American
Gold Beach- 24970 British
Juno Beach- 21400 Canadian
Sword Beach- 28845 British
What were the Canadian stats after the first day of fighting at Juno Beach?
What were some of the ways that Jews resisted their fate?
The Jewish Partisans who fought in the forests of Eastern Europe
The Jews who joined forces with the local underground resistance
Uprisings in ghettos and in concentration camps
Why was the State of Israel created?
To protect the Jewish people
What were some of the reasons to drop the atomic bomb? (6 things).
1) End the war quickly
2) Japanese resistance & personal honour (samurai mentality)
3) Save US POW
4) Personal hatred & poetic justice
6) Antagonize the USSR
When was the Postdam Conference?
What happened at the Postdam Conference?
Stalin, Truman & Churchhill met for the first time. Truman told Stalin he had a new weapons and walked away. Stalin acted like he didn't care but really did. Germany divided into 4 occupation zones and USSR agrees to enter the war vs. Japan on August 8.
What was the Postdam Declaration?
Unconditional Surrender or face destruction
When was the Bombing of Hiroshima? How many died immediately, and after?
75000 immediately, many after in the following days, months, and years.
August 6, 1945
Japan does not surrender
When was the Bombing of Nagasaki? How many died? Did Japan surrender? When was V-J Day?
August 9, 1945
August 14, 1945-V-J Day
75000 only dead
Canadian____and coastal____were crucial for the shipment of North American supplies to the front.
German submarines sunk how many ships off the east coast?
More than a hundred
What did people too young or too old or not physically qualified for active military service join or do?
Joined student carded corps and reserve military units to carry out evening and weekend service. Most community groups and religious faiths performed volunteer work
Following the outbreak of WWII, how many internment/POW camps opened?
What were camps identified by?
What were the three ethnic groups in the camps?
German, Italian, and Japanese
What two forms did exile take?
Relocation centers for families and relatively well off individuals (low security threat)
The POW/internment camps for single men, the less well-off, and those deemed to be a security risk.
How many German Candians were accused of being spies?
What did the government do to farms belonging to the Germans accused of spying?
They expropriated them with no compensation and they were imprisoned behind barbed wire in the camp.
What was MAckenzie's first order of business about the Japanese in Canada/
Incarcerate all males between the ages of 14 and 45. They were ordered to move more than 160 km inland to safe guard teh pacific coast from Japanese spies.
What were the conditions like in the internment camps?
Living in cramped quarters with ten other families, sharing one stove. Many were placed in tents until there were houses available. The house consisted of panel boards with no insulation, rickety walls and maybe a stove.
What was the no vote in Quebec for conscription, what was the yes vote everywhere else?
What was Bill 80?
It authorized the conscription for overseas service if it was deemed necessary?
What group in Quebec fought against conscription?
Who was J.L Ralston?
Minister of national defence
When was Ralston convinced that conscription was necessary? What happened because of this?
In the autumn of 1944. King didn't want to invoke Bill 80 so he replaced him with General AGL McNaughton, a supporter of voluntary service.
What happened on Nov. 20 (conscription)?
The PM reversed his decision in an effort to save his gov't and announced that conscripts would be sent overseas.
How many conscripts were sent overseas?
Why did nations support the rise of leaders such as Hitler and Mussolini? What were conditions like in these countries?
They were living with weak governments who couldn't support them. The people looked to strong leaders who were able to provide a plan for fixing the economy and give the people something to work towards.
What happened to the League of Nations?
It failed to prevent war because they ignored to many things and tried to appease Hitler, thinking that if they let him have a little, he would stope.
What was the first country that Germany invaded?
What was the response from the rest of the world to Germany's invasion of Poland?
Ended appeasement and was the catalyst for WWII.
What are the RAF and the Luftwaffe and what was their importance to the Battle of Briatin>
Royal Air Force.
German Air Force.
Mostly fought in the air and it was because of the British air forces that Germany delayed their invasion of Britain indefinitely.
What were U-boats?
German submarines that hunted allied ships crossing the North Atlantic Ocean.
How were the U-boats beaten?
Were sunk when allied crews were better trained and more experienced with submarine tracking technology. the Royal Canadian Navy and the RCAF had also grown and were able to protect their conveys more effectively.
How did enlistment from WWI change to WWII? How/why did it change?
Because diversity increased in the military. Ukrainian people who had been in internment camps in WWI were allowed into the army, as were women. In WWI women had never been allowed to enlist in combat roles, but in WWII they could. It changed because the army was in need of people to fight for them, and women gained more rights after WWI with women't so suffrage.
What did the Japanese bomb Pearl Harbour?
Because Japan was intent on expanding its empire in the pacific and winning control of southeast asia's valuable natural resources. The Japanese viewed the American's growing naval strength as a possible threat.
Why is Dieppe important?
The operation was a failure. the allies lsot the element of surprise when their ships encountered a German convoy during the night. The landing sites were poorly chosen dn the Germans were able to fire shells at allied landing craft when they were still ten minutes from the shore. The beaches were also barricaded. It was a massacre and after six hours the allied troops retreated.
Discuss teh allied invasion of Italy and what was gained?
They planned to attack Italy with the goal of weakening the German defences in France by drawing troops South. After 38 days of fighting, the German and Italian forces with Drew to the Italian mainlands and Sicily fell to the allied powers. After this, Benito Mussolini was overthrown. Teh Canadians mission was to capture the city of Ortona, which they did.
How could Tommy Prince be seen as a cause of change in govn't policy towards discrimination of FN people?
He was one of the most decorated FN military officers in history. He became the chairman of the Manitoba Indian Association where he tried to improve the living conditions of FN people. He was awarded for his service in the Korea WAr as well as the SIlver STar, and AMerican award for gallantry for his work in the field in WWII.
When was VE Day?
May 7, 1945
Why did Canada not take a firmer stand against Nazi Germany before the invasion of Pland?
They thought that if they just let Hitler have a little bit he would eventually stop and be satisfied. Canada was also not looking for another war after WWI because their economy was awful and the losses suffered in WWI were catastrophic.
Did FN fight in WWII? Why was this a complicated matter?
It is complicated because in treaty negotiations there was a promise made that FN people whould not have to fight in British wars. When conscription began, the FN went to the government and they honoured their promise, though lots of FN people volunteered anyway.
What was teh conscription crisis?
The fact that Mackenzie King said he wouldn't conscript, but then he held a vote that asked Canadians to allow him to break his promise. The French Canadians were strongly opposed and the English Canadians were strongly for conscription.
In times of war what can the Canadian government do that is ethically responsible to ensure the security of Canada without violating basic human rights (internment camps).
They can not alienate a group of people who are living inCanada because of their ethnic background for fear that they are spies or will pose a threat. The government shouldn't give in to the pressure of scared and racist citizens who know nothing.
What was the Hyde Park Declaration?
Stated that the US would buy products from Canadian industries worth roughly as much as the products Canadian industries were buying in the US and the deficit that developed when Canada increasingly relied on the American supplies to fuel its factories as the war escalated would dissapear.