Flashcards in 5.4 Deck (53):
Where can western alienation be traced back to?
John. A's National Policy and confederation
What was the National Policy's main focus points?
1. Settlement of the west
3. Tariff policy (high $ for manufactured products than for grain being shipped out)
What was the main job of central Canada and what was the main job of outer Canada?
Outer: resource hinterland
When did Prime Minister Macdonald begin to enact the high tarrif feature of his National Policy?
What was the percent tariff imposed on farm implements? What was it raised to in 1884?
What was the goal of the tariffs?
To encourage new Ontarion and Quebec manufacturers by penalizing the entry of competing products primarily from teh US and Britain.
What did the tariffs force western farmers to pay hight duties on or buy?
Imported farm machinery, or to buy more expensive substitutes from central Canada
What was the Manufacturers Association of Ontario's sole purpose? When was it formed?
Sole purpose of seeking high tariffs to benefit Ontarion manufacturers around 1878
What happened in the 1911 election?
Macdonald was voted back in because even though the west lined up against the tariffs in the election, but those in central Canada lined up on the side of tariff protection.
What did the CPR have monopoly on?
In general and freight rate equalization in particular.
When did the West's problem with the CPR begin?
In 1883 when they printed its first freight schedule and except for a few items the rates were 50% higher than the Grand Trunks Railway's rates for Central Canada for the same service.
Who had to pay the hightest rate of all? What would this be known as?
What led to the first recorded western threat of secession from Canada by some angry___ in___?
-objections to the CPR monopoly (massive land and cash grants, monopoly on western rail construction, control over all products moving to and from the province).
What percent of the federal Crown Corporation rail employees live in the west when it does two0thirds of its entire freight business in western Canada today?
What did the major problem of the monopoly of grain elevators at many rail points mean for farmers?
They were obliged to accept the local elevator agent's terms for the price, storage, weight, and grade of their crop.
What did complain about the practice of monopoly of grain elevators at many rail points lead to?
The appointment of a royal commission in 1899 and the Manitoba Gran Act by the Laurier government in 1900
What was the Canadian wheat Board?
The only dealer in all major crops both domestically and abroad. Bennett first proposed in effect to nationalize the entire elevator system
What did the Canadian wheat board become that it wasn't supposed to? (3 things).
1) wheat, not a grain marketing agency
2) elevator system was never created
3) compulsory features were elimanated leaving it to establish an annual minimum price for wheat that farmers were free to accept or to reject in favour of the offers of private companies
When did Alberta, Manitoba, and Saskatchewan gain control of their natural resources (not looking for a year)?
30 years or more after they joined Canada
In 1901 only___of Canada's population lived in the Prairies, but by___the number had grown to almost___. More than____farmers were using___million of improved prairie land by___.
What did Westeners conclude the real reason was at the time that Ottawa transferred control over their resources and land to them?
That neither was worth keeping
Where did most of the socialist parties start?
Some examples of socialist parties that started in the west?
Communist Party, C.C.F, Social Credit movement, and later the N.D.P.
Who did the new political parties suggest should have to pay higher taxes?
Western Alienation: What happened in 1970? 1980?
1970: conflict between Alberta and Ottowa over energy resources
1980: National Energy Policy
Western Alienaiton: What happens in the 1990s?
Conflict between BC and Ottawa (lumber trade, the "salmon war" with the US)
In what ways did Western Canada share in the post WWII boom?
Rising per capita incomes, expanding employement opportunities, improvements in housing, transportation, and communication.
What are some possible causes over western alienation after WWII (up to 1990s)?
>conflicts over resource development projects such as the Comumbia River in BC in the 1950s
>the oil and gas pricing issue in Alverta in the 1970s
>fisheries policies in BC in the 1980s and 1990s
>differences relating to multiculturalism, the accommodation of Quebec in the federal union
What was one of Pierre Trudeau's first actions after the election?
To bring in the National Energy Program in the 1970s.
What was the NEP designed to protect and promote? What was created as the national oil and gas company?
To protect Canada's oil supply and promote Canadian ownership of our energy resources. Petri Canada was oil and gas company.
What did the NEP do to Alberta's oil and gas? What did Alberta's Premier Peter Lougheed threaten to do?
It made it available at cheaper than world prices to Canadian manufacturing companies, especially in eastern Canada, and further taxed oil and gas profits.
Alberta's premier threatened to cut oil shipments to Easter Canda. Prices were raised to reflect world prices.
When did the NEP stay in place until?
What did Petro Canada become?
The local hub for the Canadian government to implement NEP
What did the Reform Party come from?
Western Canadian alienation and it is a conservative right wing party.
What did the Reform Party start out as?
A regional government only being in the west.
What did the reform party do in 2003?
Knew it needed to expand convinced the Conservative party to join them to unite the right which happened in 2003.
Who was the first leader of the Conservative Party?
Stephan Harper. He spent time as the PM of Canada. BUT HE WAS VOTED OUT HAHAHAHAHAHA LONG LIVE TRUDEAU!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
When was Equalization introduced? What was it?
1957 as a way to promote comparable public services in all 10 provinces.
How does Equalization work?
Takes federal tax dollars and distributes them to "have-not" provinces with lower per-capita even use.
Currently, is Saskatchewan a have-not or a have province?
A "have" province.
What was the Romanow Report?
The report presents 47 recommendations with time frames for implementation.
When was the Romanow Report written?
What three themes underlie the recommendations of the Romanow Report?
1) strong leadership and improved governance is needed to keep Medicare a national asset.
2) the system needs to become more responsive and efficient as well as more accountable to Canadians.
3) we need to make strategic investments over the short term to address priority concerns, as well as over the long term to place the system on a more sustainable footing.
Where Romanow's recommendation put in place? What is still a concern for Canadians and politicians alike?
How did the Reform Party merge to join the Conservative Party?
1. In 2000 members of the Reform Party voted to dissolve their party and create the Canadian Alliance. In 2002, Stephen Harper was elected leader. In 2003 the Canadian Alliance merged with the Progressive Conservative Party. Together they formed the Conservative party of Canada and Harper was elected as the party’s leader. In the 2006 federal election, they formed a minority government.
What are equalization payments and how do they benefit Canadians? How owuld they hurt? Could this be an issue in national unity?
2. Equalization payments formed because some rich provinces could provide more in the way of social programs than the poorer provinces. The goal was to ensure that all Canadians would have access to similar public services. The wealthier provinces gave some of the money they collected in taxes to the federal government. The government then redistributed this money to the less-prosperous provinces. They would hurt Canadians because many provincial leaders question the program in terms of fairness, level of services, natural resource revenues, and how equalization payments are calculated so yes, it could be a problem for national unity.
What could be some of the effects of provinces having more control over health care?
3. Some of the effects of provinces having more control over health care would be that it may not be equal all over Canada. It may cause issues between federal and provincial governments in terms of how funds are spent. It also may make health care better for those in the provinces because there would be a more localized focus on it and there may be more fund allocated for health care. The problem would be some provinces over funding and some provinces underfunding the system. But I think that this could be avoided as long as there were national standards set in place.
What does the Senate in Canada do? Why is there a push to reform the Senate?
4. In Canada, the Senate was created as a place of “sober second thought” on the decisions of the House of Commons. There is a push to reformed the senate because many feel that the senators should be elected rather than appointed, should reflect more closely the cultural diversity of Canada, should represent the population distribution across various provinces, and the fact that they are appointed by the Governor General after being recommended by the PM and are not elected by Canadian citizens. Some provincial premiers lobbied for Senate reform to allow for provincial representation through elected senators.
What does the economic recession of 2008 show us about how closely related we are the the US?
5. The economic recession of 2008 shows us that we are very closely related to the United States
What are some key points in which negatively remember Brian Mulroney and his Conservative Party?
6. Some key points in which negatively remember Brian Mulroney and his conservative Party are: he discontinued old age pension and family allowances for citizens who could afford to live without government aid, they triggered debates across Canada when it negotiated a free-trade deals with The US and later with Mexico, introduced the Goods and Services Tax (GST), and made efforts to bring Quebec into the Constitution through the Meech Lake and Charlottetown Accords.
Why did Jean Chretien step down? What was the scandal called?
7. The Sponsorship Scandal which came to light in 2003 and 2004 was after the 1995 Quebec sovereignty referendum Chretien set up a special $250 million fund to fight separatism by sponsoring and advertising the idea of a United Canada in Quebec. When stories of improper use of this money were reported in November 2003, Chretien resigned. In 2004, Canada’s auditor general, who examines federal accounts, found that $100 million in sponsorship funds had been given illegally to advertising companies with ties to the Liberal Party.
PM Harper's prerogative was legal, yet many people believe it was unethical. Explain why. (Prorogued get parliament).
People believed that it was unethical because the move was anti-democratic. The first time around it was to avoid a vote of non-confidence, and the second time around it was to avoid accountability for the treatment of Afghanistan detainees by Canadian forces during the United Nations mission in Afghanistan.