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Flashcards in 4.2 Deck (67):

How many soldiers did Robert Borden initally promise the British?



How many volunteered for service when WWI began?



What was wrong with the Ross rifle?

It was not designed to withstand the rigours of trench warfare. It jammed easily in the muddy conditions at the front, and the rapid firing often caused the rifle to overheat and seize up.


How many soldiers did Borden promise Britain after the first battle of Ypres?

500 000


Where did all Canadian battles occur?

On the western front


When was chlorine gas used for the first time?

Second battle of Ypres


How many casualties at the second battle of Ypres?

6300 injured and over 2000 dead on the Canadian side


After the Second Battle of Ypres, which famous poem was penned?

In Flanders Fields by John McCrae


When was the Battle of the Somme?



In Battle of the Somme which regiment advanced near Beaumont-Hamel?

Newfoundland regiment


What percent of Canadians were killed at the Battle of the Somme?



Why were the Canadians not happy with the British command after the Battle of the Somme?

Command was told over and over the attacks were killing numerous men wave after wave were sent over the top to their deaths. The Canadians did not like that the British were sending the Canadians to their death.


When did the Canadians capture Vimy Ridge?

April 1917


Who were the Canadians led by at Vimy Ridge?

General Arthur Currie


Why did the battle of Vimy Ridge go so well?

They developed a new strategy which crushed the German positions, allowing Canada to over-run the ridge in 3 hours time...and hold it. They had throughly prepared for the battle with scale models of the field as well as rehersals by the soldiers until they knew their role perfectly.


How did Gernal Andy McNaughton help at Vimy Ridge?

He used teh sound and flash of Germans guns to locate enemy positions and destroy them. He was an innovative Canadian artillery officer.


What did Canada receive as a result of their success at Vimy Ridge?

Its first independent command under Sir Julien Byng.


When was Passchendaele? When did the Canadian Corps begin their attack?

July 31- mid November, 1917. The Canadian Corps began their attack on October 26, 1917.


What was Passchendaele also known as?

The third battle of Ypres


Who was the offensive in Flanders launched by (Passchendaele)? What was it?

British commander Sir Douglas Haig to break through the front and destroy the German submarine bases on the coast of Belgium.


What was the initial barrage at Passchendaele?

The initial barrage of Allied artillery warned the Germans and created a mass of craters, potholes, and dust in the battlefield. Heavy rains turned the field into a bog of thick mud that limited mobility.


How many soldiers died per month of drowning at Passchendaele?



British, Australian, and New Zealand forces fought for months with few advances and ____casualities.

100 000


What happened when the Canadian Corps were ordered to relieve the Anzac forces in October at Passchendaele?

Lieutenant-General Arthur Currie objected but was overruled. Teh Canadians began a series of attacks on Octover 26. On Octover 30, with two British divisions, the Canadians began the attack on Passchendaele itself. By November 6, when reinforcements arrived, the village of Passchendaele was taken.


Why were women essential in WWI?

They ran businesses, helped with harvest, made care packages. They took on jobs that under other conditions they would not have been allowed to have and achieved in them.


When did federal tax com and why?

1917 to help pay for the war effort.


How much debt was the Canadians government in from WWI?

1 billion dollars


Why did Borden introduce conscription? How did he win the election because of it?

Volunteer tailed off. He gave the men and women serving overseas the right to vote for the first time.


When was conscription introduced?



What was the Military Service Act?

It allowed for the government to draft single men between the ages of 20 and 35 for mandatory military service.


How many conscripts were actually sent to France?

Roughly 25 000


Who was Henri Bourassa?

A key Quebec leader in the early 1900s who believed that the French were slowly being only accepted in Quebec. H eked Quebec Nationalism- the idea of Quevec as a sovereign nation outside the control of Canada.


When did the closet separatist vote occur? What as the final tally?

50.4% said no


What were Canada's 100 Days?

A series of attacks made along the Western Front by the Canadian Corps. The substantial role the Canadian's played in causing the defeat and/or retreat of teh German Armu.


Where did the Canadian's fight during Canada's 100 Days?

Amiens, Arras, the HIndenburg LIne, the Canal du Nord, Bourlon Wood, Cambrai, Denain, Valenciennes, and finally at Mons on the final day of teh First World War.


The Canadian Corps had four over-strength divisions of roughly____men, engaged and defeated or put to slight elements of ____German divisions, which represented___of the German forces fighting on the Western Front.

100 000
Forty seven
One quarter


What percent of their battle-sustained casualties happened during Canada's 100 Days?



How many men and women fought in WWI?

600 000


Was the military accepting of everyone?

Generally not non-whites.


When wer eAboriginal Canadians allowed to enlist? What battalion were the accepted into? How may Aboriginal Canadians would serve with the Canadian forces?

-114 battalion as well as others


How many men did The Canadian Japanese Association in BC put forward?

227 men some of which were admitted into the military.


Which battalion included black soldiers from both the US and Canada?

The No. 2 Construction Battalion


How many black Canadians served in the war?

Over 1000


The CEF included over____Black and West Indians who were not segregated or part of No. 2 Construction Battalion.



How many Canadians were dead by the end of WWI?

Over 60000


What was the Treaty of Versailles and where was it signed?

It was the treaty that ended the war and it was signed at the Paris Peace Conference.


Why did the Allies blockade Germany maintained during treaty negotiations?

To ensure that Germany signed.


What was ARticle 231 "War Guilt Clause"?

Germany had to formally take all of the blame for starting the war.


How percent of Germany was seized with the Treaty of Versailles?

13% --> 6 million people


What was the Total German disarmament?

-Volunteer force of no more than 100 000
- No draft, artillery, tanks, etc.
-No ships larger than 10 000 men


How much did Britain and France was Germany to pay in reparations initially? What did they reduce this to?

200 Billion
Lowered to 32 billion


What was the League of Nations?

An anti-war pledge between a number of countries to stop another World War from every happening. It is now known as the United Nations.


What did Prime Minister Borden demanded for Canada at the Paris Peace Conference to end WWI?

That Canada be independent countries in the League as opposed to British Colonies?


Why did Wilson really like the League of Nations? Which US group didn't like it? Why was this a problem for the League of Nations?

He was a democrat. He thought it would prevent another war. Republicans in US wanted no part of the Leage. Wilson does a lot of work to put the Leage foreward but he can't get the Republicans to join it. Huge world power who was instrumental in setting it up didn't even join it. From the get go, the League of Nations didn't have power or support becuase of it.


What was the Halifax Explosion?

The Mont Blanc was a French warship carrying 2400 tons of explosives. It collided with another ship in the Halifax Harbour and it was the largest non-Atomic explosion in world history.


What were the death and injured toll in the Halifax Explosion?

1600 dead
9000 injured


What did the Halifax Explosion lead to the creation of in Canada?

The first public housing units in Canada.


Why does Halifax send Boston a Christmas tree every year?

As a thank-you for the over $1 million donated by the residents of Boston.


What was the Statute of Westminister?

The logical end of years of change and negotiation between Britain and her Dominions. British parliament could no longer nullify laws in teh Dominions. Dominions could make their own extra-territorial laws. British law no longer applied to the Dominions. It formally put external affairs under the authority of the federal government.


In___Borden made an appearance and participated in the _____. What did he argue for?

-Paris Peace Conference
-He argued for a separate seat at the conference for the Canadian delegation as well as a role for the country in the new League of Nations


Who is Arthur Currie and why is he important?

He was the commander-in-chief of the Canadian Corps. He argued against engaging in Passchendaele because he knew they were unprepared and that there would be heavy losses. He was denied and Passchendaele became regarded as one of the mot futile battles in the war with an enormous loss of human lives and no real gain.


Why do you think the government felt it necessary to enact the War Measures Act? How do you think Canadian citizens felt about it, especially those who were manufacturers or new immigrants? Explain whether or not you think it was ethical to enact the War Measures Act.

I think that the government though it necessary to enact this act because Canada was at war and people were scaared. The gov't probably felt threatened as was acting on fear. I imagine that Canadian citizens who weren't Germans or new immigrants went along with it becuase it really didn't change their lives too much. But of those Canadians that were put in the internment camps I imagine that they felt rather betrayed by the gov't. I think that it was ethical to enact parts of the act but not others, such as the internment camps because censoring media is not necessarily a bad thing but interning innocent people is.


Why might there have been some reasons for different perspectives of conscription?

Some reasons for the different perspectives would be Rovert Borden trying to appeal to potential voters as well as the fact that he is most likely an English Canadian I believe. The French people did not feel an obligation to fight this war. The English people have always felt a certain pull towards Britain, and they still don't seem to understand, and there is still some bad blood in that fact, that the French have their own culture and do not feel the need to support Britain.


Many Canadians at the time of WWI believed conscription was not ethical. Why might they have believed this?

They would have believed that conscription was not ethical because they knew of the casualities and hardships suffered by the soldiers overseas. They knew that they would be sending the young men to their death adn that is not ethical and not something that you can do with a good conscience.


What circumstances brought on changes in Britain's policy toward Canada?

The circumstances that brought on the change in Britain's policy towards Canada was the fact that they made significant contributions throughout the war, and mainly that there was a new British Prime Minister, David Lloyd George, that understood that in order to defeat the Triple Alliance the dominions needed to feel as if they had a share in the councils and burdens.


Explain how some Canadians saw Prime Minister Borden as an imperialist, while others saw him as a nationalist?

Some would see him as an imperialist because he was partial to Britain and some would see him as a nationalist because of how he wanted more independence from Britain in terms of demanding Canada have a seat at the conference to sign the Treaty of Versailles.


What is the significanc elf the Halibut Treaty for Canada?

It is important to Canada because it is the first major dispute that was settled without the help of the British. Canada demonstrated its assertiveness and Britain backed off. The Halibut Traty was a precedent for Britain's dominions having authority to make their own treaties.