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Flashcards in 4.1 Deck (45):

In 1899, tensions wer blaring up between which two groups in South Africa and Africa?

The Dutch settlers (Boers) in South Africa and Britain's immigrants in Africa.


Was there ever a war between the Boers and the British?



What kind of effect did the Boer War have on French and English Canadians?

It created a divide between them. The French didn't believe that they should support a British war.


How did Laurier solve the problem of the Boer War?

He sent 100 Canadian troops to Africa under the care and expense of Britain.


How many Canadians participated in the Boer War?



When did Canada and the US both claim ownership over the Alaska Panhandle?



How was the Alaska boundary to be solved?

It would go to a panel of three representatives for a decision: two from the US and one from Britain.


Which country got the Alaska Panhandle?

US: the British rep supported the US and it angered Canada.


Prior to___Canada did not have a navy of its own.



Why did Canada create the Royal Canadian Navy?

When Britain discovered that Germany was building their navy they turned to Canada to help build theirs. Many in Canada did not want Canada funding the British Navy so Laurier came up with a compromise that it would create a navy of its own that could be used by the British if needed.


Why did Robert Borden and the Conservatives replace Laurier in 1912?

His navy compromise was not enough and many Canadians opposed the Naval Service Bill of 1910


What does Militarianism refer to and why was it a cause of WWI?

It refers to a focus on the importance of developing and improving the weapons and military capabilities of a country. By the end of the 19th century Britain had control of the world's oceans due to the size and strength of its navy. There was an arms race in Europe after Germany built battleships.


What two battleships did Germany build in 1906?

The Nassau and the Westfale


By the start of WWI, who was the world's largest naval power?

Britain with as many dread noughts as both the US and Germany combined.


Who had the second largest naval force in the world in 1914?



When did Germany and teh Austro-Hungarian Empire ally themselves and why?

Late 19th century. A way of protecting themselves from their RUssian neighbours


When did Italy join Germany and Austria-Hungary?



What was the Triple Alliance?

(Later in 1914, the Ottoman Empire replaced Italy)


When did Russia sign a defensive treaty with France against Germany and Austria-Hungary?



What was the Triple Entente?

Alliance between Frnce, Russia, and Britain


What was imperialism and why was it important to places like Britain and Germany for example?

It was expansion to acquire more land. It is important becuase the acquisition of colonies gave each empire greater access to cheap resources and raw materials for industry as well as new markets to sell their goods. It also helped to build the economies of these empires.


What was the spark that started the war?

On June 28, 1914, Gavrilo Princip, a member of the Serbian terrorist group, the Black Hand, assassinated the heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, Archduke Franz Ferdinand while visiting Sarajevo.


What happened between Serbia and Austria-Hungary after the assassination? What about Germany, Russia, France, and Britian?

The government of Austria-Hungary blamed Serbia and gave an ultimatum that was unacceptable. Serbia was invaded by Austria-Hungary. Russia's mobilization of its army to defend Servia brought the Germans into the conflict, becuase of its alliance with Austria-Hungary. The entry of Germany into the war against Russia forced France and Great Britain into the conflict by August, 1914.


What was the War Measures Act of 1914?

It was passed in Canada and it gave the government full authority to do anything they felt was "for security, defence, peace, order, and the welfare of Canada".


What is Trench Warfare?

Type of warfare in which the combatants each take refuge in a series of trenches (dugouts are seperated by land that is in dispute).


When did Trench Warfare occur?

When a military revolution in firepower was not matched by similar advances in mobility, resulting in a terrible form of warfare in which defence was the advantage.


Where was Trench Warfare most prominent?

The Western Front


How long was the Western Front?

500 miles long


Name and describe the two stages of typical trench warfare?

1) Week long artillery bombardment" attempt to kill everyone on the front lines and destroy the enemy's bar wire.
2) Get out of the trench ("over the top") and cross the field of fire ("no man's land)- 90% of the defence would be ready with machine guns in hand. Rain and snow would have made the ground muddy and hard to cross. Conditions made attacking troops like "ducks in a barrel" (slow moving easy targets).


What was the main problem with the week long artillery bombardment?

Once the bombardment stopped, the enemy knew that troops were attacking


How many "enemy aliens" did the government order to 24 internment camps?



After Great Britain entered the First World War in August 1914, Canada issued an ________under the____Act. It required the registration and in certain cases the___of aliens of "enemy nationality."

Order in Council
War Measures


How many Canadians who were formally citizens of the Austrian-Hungarian Empire registered as "enemy aliens"?

80 000


Who were the internment camps supposed to house?

Enemy alien immigrants who had contravened regulations or who were deemed to be security threats. They could be interned if they failed to register or failed to report monthly, or travelled without permission, or wrote to relatives in Austria. They could be interned if they acted in a very suspicious manner or for being undesirable.


By the middle of 1915, how many people had been interned for being "indigent" (poor and unemployed)?



A total of___Canadians were interned between 1914 and 1920. Over____of them were of Ukrainian descent. Germans, Poles, Italians, Bulgarians, Croatians, Turks, Serbians, HUngarians, Russians, Jews, and Romanians were also imprisioned. Of the ___internees, only____could be classed as "prisoners of war".



What happened once you were placed in an internment camp?

Everything they had was taken by the government. They were denied access to the newspaper and all correspondence was censored.


How many internees died while trying to escape?



Why did the internees do in the camps?

They were forced to work on maintaining the camps, road-building, railway construction, and mining. Some were released on parole to work for private companies.


How long did internment camps continue after the end of WWI?

Two years because the program was such a benefit to Canadian corporations.


What was the Treaty of Washington and why did Prime Minister Macdonald sign the treaty even though it did not give Canada everything it wanted?

A treaty to restore good relations between the US and Canada as tensions between teh US and Britain were stil simmering from the American Civil War. American ships were also fishing illegally in Canadian waters and there were disagreements over navigation rights on the St. Lawrence River. Macdonald probably signed the treaty so that American aggression towards Canada wouldnt' get really bad.


Why do you think French Canadians usually had nationalist views and English speaking Canadians usually had imperialist views?

The English speaking Canadians usually had imperialistic views because they believed that Canada had a duty to support the mother country and French speakers were more about supporting only Canada because they didn't like Britain.


Describe two perspectives on the Naval Service Bill?

One Perspective: the imperialists believed the new Canadian force--what they called a "tin pot navy"--was inadequate.
Another Perspective: The nationalists believed Laurier had gone too far in supporting Britain and were displeased that Canada's navy was available for Britain's use.


Why were alliances so important in WWI?

The reason that the majority of countries ended up in the war was because they were either allied with Germany or France which is why they went into the war. The military alliances established a system inwhich even a small conflict could quickly spread throughout the continent and beyond.


Why was the second battle of Ypres so important to Canada? What happened there?

The second battle of Ypres was important because it was their first major military engagement. the Germans released poisonous gas and the Allies choked, suffocated, and died. As the Allies retreated, the Canadians stepped in to fill the gap. They were hit with the gas, but they still held their line. the Canadians prevented the Germans from retreating. It was important to Canadians because word of the great effort and courage of the Canadians spread around the world and the Canadians gained a reputation as a force to be reckoned with.