Flashcards in 2.2 Deck (49):
Why were Loyalists angry after the signing of the Treaty of Paris in 1783?
They were angry that Britain did not mount more of a challenge as many of their posts had not been vacated even if they were in US territory.
Why was Britain angry after the signing of the Treaty of Paris in 1783?
They were angry in the way that the US had treated the Loyalists.
What was the Jay's Treaty?
It tried to prevent another outbreak of war between the two countries, US and Britain.
When and where was the Jay's Treaty signed?
In London in 1794
With the Jay's Treaty, where did the British agree to move out of?
Move out of their posts in the Ohio Valley by 1976 which they had held since the early 1780s.
What did the Jay's Treaty give the Aboriginals the right to?
Move freely across the borders of the US and British North America.
What rights did the Jay's Treaty take away from the First Nations?
Land rights in the Ohio valley
How long did the Jay's Treaty last?
Only a decade. Prevented war in the early stages but after the treaty had run out they could not come together on a new one resulting in war.
When did the War of 1812 end?
What did the War of 1812 confirm from Upper Canada?
Their fear that America would try to take over their territory and the rest of western Canada.
What did the War of 1812 fuel amongst all Canadians?
What upset America in the War of 1812 with regards to the FIrst Nation?
That Britain had delegated territory for Aboriginals that initally hindered American westward expansion.
What part of British North America were united for a brief moment, and against who?
-English Canadians, French Canadaisn, and Aboriginals
-Help the British forces throw back and and al American attacks
What did the elite and wealthy group of Canadians oppose?
The American ideas of responsible and representative government as well as equality and freedom
Did the cause of the War of 1812 had a little or a lot to do with British North America?
Who were the points of contention between?
Britain and the US
What was the role of the fur trade in the War of 1812?
The British still occupied forts in the new America which allowed the fur trade to continue as well as the relationship with Aboriginals of that land. First Nations resistance to the expansion of American settlement into the Northwest was seen by many as the British still trying to hold onto power in regions that made up the New America.
In what year did Tecumseh form an alliance of First Nations people who lands were being threated by American expansion?
Why did America choose to attack British North America when their fight was with Britain?
They were unable to attack Britain directly so the next best thing was their colonies.
What were the three causes of the War of 1812?
1) England was interfering with US trade ships to Europe
2) England was trying to create a buffer zone between America and the west by giving land to First Nations
2) America believed the British were using the First Nations people against the US
What were the three consequences of the War of 1812?
1) Anti-Americanism begins in Canada
2) The "elites" (upper class) in Upper Canada felt they led the defence of Canada so they should control the colony
3) Maritimes are found to be important in resource's and wealth they could provide
Who was Tecumseh?
A Shawnee Warrior who united many First Nations to fight with the British/Canadians against the Americans.
What did the alliance between Tecumseh and the British occur?
Because of the US dealing with First Nations. He thought that siding with the British gave himself and his people a better opportunity.
Canada would not have survived the War of 1812 without the help of which Canadian hero?
Tecumseh and the First Nation's help.
Who was Sir Isaac Brock?
Another true Canadian hero who was the commander of the Canadian/British forces in the War of 1812.
Why did many Aboriginals side with the British during the War of 1812?
They felt a sense of obligation through the Niagara Treaty but also because they thought the British would allow them to preserve enough land for their way of life.
Which place did the Aboriginals take in the War of 1812 that played a vital role in British victories?
When was Tecumseh killed and where?
He was killed in 1813 during the Battle of the Thames.
Which part of Canada was largely uninvolved in the War of 1812?
Lower Canada. Surprise surprise.
What would the Americans do to the Aboriginals following the War of 1812?
They would largely remove any Aboriginals living east of the Mississippi River and force them into Indian land now known as Oklahoma. Many Aboriginals chose to migrate north into land around the Great Lakes in Upper Canada instead.
What was the result for Canada after the War of 1812 (Upper Canada's opinion on their superiority)?
Many Canadian elites felt that becasue they had led the defence of Upper Canada during the war, they should continue to lead the colony afterwords.
The demand for what type of government increased after the War of 1812?
A responsible government.
After the War of 1812, British North America was in teh following situation:______
Treaty of Ghent
Why did the US threat die down?
The Americans expanded west not north
How did the British betray their First Nations allies?
By allowing the US to extend their borders into First Nations' land. This happened because Britain did not include First Nations in the peace negotiations after the War of 1812.
What is the 49th parallel?
It was set after the War of 1812 and it became the longest undefended border in the world.
What colonies tied to Britain did British North America consist of after the War of 1812?
-Prince Edward Island
-*Rupert's Land was still controlled by the Hundon's Bay Company and their rival the Northwest Company
The____ ____was under the control of an____ ____. The two groups that were to lead British North America were often engaged in conflict.
What did the two governments become know as?
Government by Clique
What did the Government by Clique mean? What is this system of government known as?
-A small group of wealthy people had control of the decision making
What wer the two "Cliques" that emerged?
-The Family Compact (Upper Canada) was a snobby group of conservative loyalists tht were the self-proclaimed defedners of the War of 1812.
-The Chateau Clique (Lower Canada) was mainly composed of wealthy British Canadians that wanted the French to assimilate.
What were the elected assemblies looking for?
A responsible, democratic government.
Do you think countries with strong trade links are less inclcined to go to war with each other? Why or why not?
Yes, because as long as they both want somethng from each other and are willing to work together to get it, war will be avoided as long as they see each other as useful.
Did Jefferson believe taking Canada would be easy? How can you tell?
Yes he thought that taking Canada would be easy because Britain was still at war with France and was weak. They also thought that some of the land Loyalists (only joined teh Loyalists tog et free land) might welcome the American invasion.
What would the short term and long term consequences if Brock and Tecemseh would have been defeated at Fort Detroit?
The short term consequences would be loss of territory and lives, the long term consequences would be the people of Upper Canada losing confidence and succumbing to the Americas.
List 3 changes in life since 1760 from the perspective of the French, English, and Aboriginal?
1) Were still majority, but had to contend with the British
2) No more military alliances with the First Nations
3) No more Quebec Act. The British were focusing solely on assimilating them
1) More British immigrants (no one used to want to come)
2) British Canadian Nationalism was born
3) Depended less and less on the fur trade
1) Loss of land rights
2) Weren't needed as partners in war
3) More than even, the Briish tried to assimilate them
What was the Gradual Civilization Act?
The Gradual Civilization Act (1857) tried to assimilate the First Nations so that they would "no longer be deemed Indians".
What consequence of the War of 1812 do you think is most historically significant? Explain your answer. What other perspectives might see the significance of the war differently?
I think that the most historically significant consequences of the War of 1812 were the alliances formed between British and French Canadians, as well as the birth of Canadian British nationalism. The First Nations would probably see this differently as they were no longer needed and lost their lands.
Land boundaries were an important consequence too.