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Flashcards in 4.6 Deck (40):

How did the United Nations begin life?

Result of a secret meeting on board the warship "Prince of Wales" which was moored off the coast of Newfoundland in August 1941.


Who was the meeting on the Prince of Wales between?

FD Roosevelt (who was not yet in WWII) and Winston Churchill. They were discussing what shape the world might take once the world ended.


What was the Atlantic Charter? What were the 5 points?

It was what Roosevelt and Churchill came up with.
1. All countries democratic government.
2. All countries would engage in free trade with eachother.
3. All outcries would share in world prosperity.
4. All countries would seek to reduce their weaponry.
5. They wanted to create a "wider and permanent system of general security" (this was to become UN).


What was the Gouzenko Affair?

Gouzenko, a clerk to the Soviet Embassy in Ottawa, decided to defect to the West with his family as he didn't like socialism at the end o WWII. Before leaving Russia he took a number of documents that detailed the spying which teh Russians had done in Canada, the USA, and Britain. After almost being apprehended by Russian security he finally found the department of justice willing to listen to him and see his evidence. They obtained political asylum and the affair remained secret for several months while the gov't gathered evidence.


How many suspects were arrested in the Gouzenko Affair and how many were convicted?

13 arrested, 7 convincted


What happened to the 26 who were believed to have carried out spying activities in the Gouzenko Affair?

11 convincted, 10 acquitted, and five set free without being indicted


What was the beginning of the Cold War for Canada?

The Gouzenki AFfair as it was the beginning of the end of our fostered relationship with Russia.


What was the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)? What were Canada's hopes as well as the hopes of other countries involved?

Canada was a founding member in 1949 and this broke from a more isolated stance that Canada had maintained before WWII. Canada hoped the treaty would help to eliminate any potential rivalries between teh major countries in the world and then Canada would not have to pick sides as it had done in the past. All countries involved hoped it would limit west Russian as well as west Germany aggression?


What was the Warsaw Pact?

In response to NATO. Was signed by teh Soviet Union and seven Eastern Europe countries.


What were two manifestations of the military alliance between the US and Canada?



Why was the Berlin Wall created? When? When did it come down?

To seperate East and West Germany, one being communist and one being democratic.
It was done at the end of WWII
It was a symbol of the Cold War and remained standing until the early 1990s.


What was Korea like at the end of WWII? *divided who had which part?

Divided into two areas at the conclusion of WWII. The North which the Soviet Union would control and the South which the US would control.


What was the conflict in Korea about?

The Soviet Union wanted the whole land mass but America wanted to set up a democracy.


When did the Korean War begin? What was the first thing that happened?

June 25, 1950 when teh military forces of N.K crossed the 38th parallel into S.K


More than___Canadians served in teh Korean War and approximately___continued to serve bwtween the cease-fires dn August 1957. In total___Canadians died in the third deadliest conflict in Canadian history.



When did the active fighting in the Korean War end? What did it end with?

-July 27, 1953 with the signing of the Armistice at Panmunjom.


What is NORAD?

The North American Aerospace Defence Command is a bi-national US and Canadian organization charged with the missions of aerospace warning and aerospace control for North America.


What does Aerospace warning include?

The monitoring of man-made objects in space and teh detection, validation, and warning of attack against North America.


What does Aerospace control include?

Ensuring air sovereignty and air defence of the airspace of Canada adn teh US


What did the May 2006 NORAD Agreement renewal add?

A maritime warning mission which entails as shared awareness and understanding of the activities conducted in US and Canaidan maritime approaches, maritime areas and inland waterways.


What was Canada's role in the Vietnam War?

Canada tried to mediate between the warring countries aiming for conclusion that could allow the US to leave the conflict honourably but also publicly criticized the US war methods. Canada also harboured 30 000 American draft dodgers and helped supervise ceasefires.


How many Canadians volunteered to fight in the Vietnamese War? What else was Canada involved in?

30 000
Secret missions, weapons testing adn arms production


The Vietnam war was the N___vs the S____. Who won and is still communist today?

North vs South


What did Lester B. Pearson do? (5 things).

-Foster care
-Universal health care throughout Canada
-Canada student loans -low interest, long-life, post-secondary funding
-Canadian flag
-Canada became a Welfare State where citizens are taxed to cover social programs.


What did John Diefenbaker struggle with during his term?

Whether or not Canada should acquire nuclear weapons.


What did Canada have to do in order to meet the requirements of NORAD?

Make a significant investment in upgrading its military technology and resources, including Bomarc ground-to-air nuclear missiles.


What was Diefenbaker's cabinet divided over?

The question of whether nuclear warheads should be utilized at all.


Who was Pierre Trudeau very like minded to?

Fidel Castro of Cubo


How did Trudeau not follow in the footsteps of the US?

He actively advanced Canada's position not only in Cuba but China and Japan which America did not appreciate.


What did Trudeau not like about which system in America? What did he do because of this with NATO?

He was not a friend to the American defence system as well as he removed NORAD's missile sites in northern Canada as well as freezing payments to NATO.


What was the role of the UN?

To keep world peace and prevent the outbreak of wars, advance justice and law, defend human rights, and pro most equality while promoting social justice and better standards of life.


Why is a charter important to the UN?

Because it is not a law that every country must follow. But rather a document for countries to use as a guide hen they create their own laws.


Who was Igor Gouzenko? Why were his actions so important to the Cold War?

He was a clerk at the Soviet Embassy in Ottawa who became disillusioned with communism. In September 1945 he defected to Canada and brought highly sensitive documents from teh Soviet Union that revealed a Soveit spy network in Canada. They set the tone for suspicion and paranoia that prevailed during the Cold War.


What is NATO? What did the Soviet Union create?

NATO was an alliance to prevent the expansion of Soviet control. The Soviet Union created teh Warsaw Pact in response.


Why is the 38th parallel so important in Korea? What does it represent?

It is important because it separates North and South Korea.


Why do you think the Avro Arrow has been called Canada's "national dream"

Because of how advanced it was. It could have propelled Canada and turned it into one of the most advanced and powerful countries in the world.


Explain the conflicting conflict in Vietnam?

Some Canadians thought that the American's should not be in Vietnamese and others thought that they should be. Those that thought they shouldn't be probably were worried about Canadian soldiers having to fight, and since the North was backed by Communists they were probably worried about Nuclear warfare.


Why does Canada belong to the Commonwealth?

Canada belongs to the Commonwealth to promote trade and economic and social development. They also hold regular meetings about foreign affairs, education, finance, health, and teh environment to help the countries work together. It links the countries in the Commonwealth together.


What was the historical significance of Canada defining itself as a middle power during and after the Cold Wa?

It set the stage for Canada being a country of peac,e not violence, and influenced the actions of prime ministers, and others in Canada, in the years to come.


How were the decisions of Pearson, Diefenbaker, and Trudeau historically significant for Canada and its path as a middle power?

They didn't concede to American influence. They continued to lead Canada and make decisions for Canada that involved peace, not violence. Bu not choosing a side, they made friends, not enemies, which protected, and continues to protect, Canada.