Flashcards in Lesson 4 Deck (54):
When did contact between the Europeans and Aboriginals start? Who did it involve?
-around 1000 C.E
-involved the Vikings and differing Aboriginal groups but was very sporadic
Were Aboriginals welcoming to the new people?
Who was the first European that discovered the America's?
Where did Columbus think he was at first?
What are the three names of the ships that sailed and found the America's?
When Columbus first arrived at the Bahaman Islands, what did he think he found?
a passage to the Indies
Who did Columbus find?
What did Columbus say about the Aboriginals that he found (in terms of what their use would be)?
he said that they would make fine servants
Who is Leif Eiriksson?
he was a Viking who led his Vikings to the new world, finding three land masses.
Who were the Norsemen?
The Norsemen were an exploring culture, who tired of and chose not to engage int he bitter feudal, religious wars of Europe.
After the Norsemen discovered Icelan, how rapidly did they populate it?
-30000 Norse descendants within 100 years
What three lands masses did Leif Eiriksson find in present day Canada?
Who did King Henry VII hire to explore the lands of the New World?
When did the English lands in NFLD?
June 24, 1497
For what reasons wold King Henry wasn to acquire colonies in the New World?
"to seek cout, discover, and find whatsoever isles, countries, regions or provinces of the heathen and infidels"
1) not paying, ratural rsources, conversion
2) Imperialism, take over new resources and have financial stake on those
3) Markets. Things/places to trade with
Who paid for John Cabot's trip? What would he, as an explorer, have been wanting to find?
he did, but he was allowed to keep a portion of whatever he found
he would probably want people and places and things to trade with
What were Cabot's first actions were when landing on the north coast of NFLD?
Cabot spoke in his diaries of how what were so think in the "New Found Isles" that they could be scooped up in baskets and would stop boats dead in their sails?
What did the codfish cause England to send? What did this result in?
-more expeditins full of missionaries and fisherman
-English fisherman were docking boats on sacred lands and fishing locations the Beothuk had used for hundreds of years
Which countries were all sending fisherman and explorers to the North coast of NFLD to ge their hands on a peice of the codfish and lumbar resources int he New World?
countries like Portugal, France, and Spain
Who were the Beothunk?
The Beothuk were a First nations community located in NFLD
Who were the Beothuk first contacted by?
John Cabot and then Gasper Real from Portugal in 1501.
How many Beothuk did Real capture?
57 and took them back to Portugal as slaves
Why could the enslavement of the Beothuk have not been avoided?
The ethnocentric attitudes and advanced weaponry of European explorers and fisherman
Where did the Beothuk retreat to and what did they do to European camps?
-retreated inland into NFLD
-occasionally raided European fishing camps for food
What made the Beothuk a struggling population?
the rampant spread of European diseases, tuberculosis, specifically made the Beothuk a struggling population and they found ti harder to defend themselves as the years went by
Who is the last known Beothuk?
A women named Shawnadithit
What happened to Shawnadithit?
she dies of tuberculosis at the age of 29
When did Jacques Cartier embark on his first trip and what was his reason?
-he was comissioned to find a passage to Asia for France
Where did he head down and who did he form a relationship with?
-he headed down the St. Lawrence Seaway
-established a relationship with the Iroquois at Stadacona (Quebec City)
How did Cartier's relationship with the Iroquois start out? What did he do right off the bat to change it?
-at first they exchanged gifts
-the tone changed when he erected a 10 meter cross
Who were the Iroquois led by?
Who were Donnacona's sons?
Taignoagny and Donagaya
Who di Cartier return to France with? HOw did thye become incaluable to Cartier?
-Donnacona's two sons
-by learning French and becomming interpreters and guides for cartier when they returned to Stadacona
Where did Cartier stay on his second trip? (2 places).
-short stay in Stadacona
-moved down the river to Hochelage (Montreal)
When did Cartier realize that there was no passage to Asia?
after looking down the narrowing St. Lawrence River and realizing that there was no passage to Asia
How many men did Cartier lose the winter he returned to Stadacona?
Who saved Cartier's men and how?
-with herbal tea that prevented them from dying of scurvy
What did Cartier do when he returned to France?
When Cartier returned to France, in a horrific scene, he abducted Donnacona, his tow sons, and seven others. None of them returned to Stadacona.
When did Cartier return to Stadacona and Hochelaga for the third time? What was his relationship with the Aboriginals like?
-he had broke their trust
Who was the St. Lawrence river left under the control of?
The First Nation societies
This is when___or___really began to occur as France began ____ ____ ____.
What may have made this settlement mutually beneficial? What made it not mutually beneficial? (For the First Nations).
Not mutually beneficial
-the abducting of people
What May have made this settlement mutually beneficial? (For the Europeans).
-knowledge of crops, soil, and animal patterns
How did Jacques Cartier die?
during an epidemic of what may have been typhus
Who gave Canada its name? What is Canada named after?
-Cartier discovered Canada, named it canada (from Kanata)
What is Terra Nullius?
a term used ot descrive land in which no country had yet claimed and as such Europeans, like they did in other countries claimed Canada to be a part of their own.
this belief was based on Aboriginals not being Christian and not using the land to its full potential
What kind of behavior was the act of terra nullius an example of?
What promted Europeans to explore North America?
rumours of the natural resources and riches that were present. more land for themselves because that meant more power
Give a few differences between First Nations and European opinions on ownership.
-idea of land ownership was foreign
-land was a figt from the creator; they were spiritual guardians of it
-land used collectively to benefit all
-beliefs did not include the idea of buying and selling land
-calimed land for European countries on the Divin Right of Kings
-kings were subject to any authority on Earth. Will to rule from God
-the world was the property of Christian kings
-if you wer enot Christian you had no right to own land
Where did the Beothuk live and what were they called by the Europeans?
The Beothuk lived in Newfoundland and were the original Red Indians
Was it legal to kill the Beothuk people?
I suppose it was legal to kill them until 1764 since it was a type of war, but it was morally wrong.
What happened to Demasduwit? What does this and other stories tell us about Europeans at the time?
She had her husband killed in from of her. She was taken prisoner in order to be made to act civilized so she could act as an ambassador but she passed away. This tells us taht Europeans were ruthless and ignorant as to the First nations culture. They didn't consider them human.