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Flashcards in Lesson 4 Deck (54):
1

When did contact between the Europeans and Aboriginals start? Who did it involve?

-around 1000 C.E
-involved the Vikings and differing Aboriginal groups but was very sporadic

2

Were Aboriginals welcoming to the new people?

no

3

Who was the first European that discovered the America's?

Christopher Columbus

4

Where did Columbus think he was at first?

India

5

What are the three names of the ships that sailed and found the America's?

-Nina
-Pinta
-Santa Maria

6

When Columbus first arrived at the Bahaman Islands, what did he think he found?

a passage to the Indies

7

Who did Columbus find?

Awaraks (Aboriginals)

8

What did Columbus say about the Aboriginals that he found (in terms of what their use would be)?

he said that they would make fine servants

9

Who is Leif Eiriksson?

he was a Viking who led his Vikings to the new world, finding three land masses.

10

Who were the Norsemen?

The Norsemen were an exploring culture, who tired of and chose not to engage int he bitter feudal, religious wars of Europe.

11

After the Norsemen discovered Icelan, how rapidly did they populate it?

-very rapidly
-30000 Norse descendants within 100 years

12

What three lands masses did Leif Eiriksson find in present day Canada?

-Newfoundland
-Labrador
-Baffin Islands

13

Who did King Henry VII hire to explore the lands of the New World?

John Cabot

14

When did the English lands in NFLD?

June 24, 1497

15

For what reasons wold King Henry wasn to acquire colonies in the New World?

"to seek cout, discover, and find whatsoever isles, countries, regions or provinces of the heathen and infidels"
1) not paying, ratural rsources, conversion
2) Imperialism, take over new resources and have financial stake on those
3) Markets. Things/places to trade with

16

Who paid for John Cabot's trip? What would he, as an explorer, have been wanting to find?

he did, but he was allowed to keep a portion of whatever he found
he would probably want people and places and things to trade with

17

What were Cabot's first actions were when landing on the north coast of NFLD?

fishing, trade

18

Cabot spoke in his diaries of how what were so think in the "New Found Isles" that they could be scooped up in baskets and would stop boats dead in their sails?

codfish

19

What did the codfish cause England to send? What did this result in?

-more expeditins full of missionaries and fisherman
-English fisherman were docking boats on sacred lands and fishing locations the Beothuk had used for hundreds of years

20

Which countries were all sending fisherman and explorers to the North coast of NFLD to ge their hands on a peice of the codfish and lumbar resources int he New World?

countries like Portugal, France, and Spain

21

Who were the Beothunk?

The Beothuk were a First nations community located in NFLD

22

Who were the Beothuk first contacted by?

John Cabot and then Gasper Real from Portugal in 1501.

23

How many Beothuk did Real capture?

57 and took them back to Portugal as slaves

24

Why could the enslavement of the Beothuk have not been avoided?

The ethnocentric attitudes and advanced weaponry of European explorers and fisherman

25

Where did the Beothuk retreat to and what did they do to European camps?

-retreated inland into NFLD
-occasionally raided European fishing camps for food

26

What made the Beothuk a struggling population?

the rampant spread of European diseases, tuberculosis, specifically made the Beothuk a struggling population and they found ti harder to defend themselves as the years went by

27

Who is the last known Beothuk?

A women named Shawnadithit

28

What happened to Shawnadithit?

she dies of tuberculosis at the age of 29

29

When did Jacques Cartier embark on his first trip and what was his reason?

-1534
-he was comissioned to find a passage to Asia for France

30

Where did he head down and who did he form a relationship with?

-he headed down the St. Lawrence Seaway
-established a relationship with the Iroquois at Stadacona (Quebec City)

31

How did Cartier's relationship with the Iroquois start out? What did he do right off the bat to change it?

-at first they exchanged gifts
-the tone changed when he erected a 10 meter cross

32

Who were the Iroquois led by?

Donnacona

33

Who were Donnacona's sons?

Taignoagny and Donagaya

34

Who di Cartier return to France with? HOw did thye become incaluable to Cartier?

-Donnacona's two sons
-by learning French and becomming interpreters and guides for cartier when they returned to Stadacona

35

Where did Cartier stay on his second trip? (2 places).

-short stay in Stadacona
-moved down the river to Hochelage (Montreal)

36

When did Cartier realize that there was no passage to Asia?

after looking down the narrowing St. Lawrence River and realizing that there was no passage to Asia

37

How many men did Cartier lose the winter he returned to Stadacona?

25

38

Who saved Cartier's men and how?

-Domagaya
-with herbal tea that prevented them from dying of scurvy

39

What did Cartier do when he returned to France?

When Cartier returned to France, in a horrific scene, he abducted Donnacona, his tow sons, and seven others. None of them returned to Stadacona.

40

When did Cartier return to Stadacona and Hochelaga for the third time? What was his relationship with the Aboriginals like?

-1536
-he had broke their trust

41

Who was the St. Lawrence river left under the control of?

The First Nation societies

42

This is when___or___really began to occur as France began ____ ____ ____.

-settlers
-coonization
-peacefully
-settle
-colonize

43

What may have made this settlement mutually beneficial? What made it not mutually beneficial? (For the First Nations).

Mutually beneficial
-forts
-farm equipment
-weaponry
-cutlery
-metallugry
-maps
-weapons
-horses
-rudders
-sails
Not mutually beneficial
-the abducting of people
-missionaries

44

What May have made this settlement mutually beneficial? (For the Europeans).

-hunting
-trapping
-guides
-knowledge of crops, soil, and animal patterns

45

How did Jacques Cartier die?

during an epidemic of what may have been typhus

46

Who gave Canada its name? What is Canada named after?

-Jacques Cartier
-Cartier discovered Canada, named it canada (from Kanata)

47

What is Terra Nullius?

a term used ot descrive land in which no country had yet claimed and as such Europeans, like they did in other countries claimed Canada to be a part of their own.
this belief was based on Aboriginals not being Christian and not using the land to its full potential

48

What kind of behavior was the act of terra nullius an example of?

ethnocentric behavior

49

What promted Europeans to explore North America?

rumours of the natural resources and riches that were present. more land for themselves because that meant more power

50

Give a few differences between First Nations and European opinions on ownership.

FIrst Nations
-idea of land ownership was foreign
-land was a figt from the creator; they were spiritual guardians of it
-land used collectively to benefit all
-beliefs did not include the idea of buying and selling land
Europeans
-calimed land for European countries on the Divin Right of Kings
-kings were subject to any authority on Earth. Will to rule from God
-the world was the property of Christian kings
-if you wer enot Christian you had no right to own land

51

Where did the Beothuk live and what were they called by the Europeans?

The Beothuk lived in Newfoundland and were the original Red Indians

52

Was it legal to kill the Beothuk people?

I suppose it was legal to kill them until 1764 since it was a type of war, but it was morally wrong.

53

What happened to Demasduwit? What does this and other stories tell us about Europeans at the time?

She had her husband killed in from of her. She was taken prisoner in order to be made to act civilized so she could act as an ambassador but she passed away. This tells us taht Europeans were ruthless and ignorant as to the First nations culture. They didn't consider them human.

54

What the lose of the Beothuk a genocide?

Yes, I believe the mass elimination of the Beothuk population was a genocide. Their entire population was depleted because the white settlers believed them to be uncivilized. The criteria set in place to determine a genocide almost lines up perfectly with what happened to the Beothuk. Thye were killed becasue they were idfferent, they didn't act the same as the Europeans. To them, that meant they weren't human. PEople fear the unknown, but that is no excuse for the mass extermination, and the barbaric way in which it took place.