Flashcards in Lesson 2.1 Deck (57):
Who were the Southern, 13 colonies, becoming tired of?
The British rule
Who's perspective was between the new settler in Ohia and the British rule? Why?
-Aboriginals were not consulted during the Treaty of Paris and they were taking away their ancestral land
Who was Pontiac?
Pontiac was a First Nations chief
What did Pontiac do?
He led an alliance of native tribes which opposed British control over their lands.
When did Pontiac's council take place?
What was discussed at Pontiac's council?
They were determing how to rise up against the British.
What was Pontiac's plan?
Each nation was to rise simultaneously against the British. Each campaign would begin when Pontiac gave the word.
Did Pontiac's strategy work?
The strategy worked, all forts fell or surrendered, except Fort Detroit and Fort Pitt.
What fort was Pontiac responsible for?
Why didn't Pontiac's plan work on Fort Detroit?
News reached Fort Detroit before the plan could be executed. The officer and his men foiled the attack, and Pontiac instead led a siege of the fort.
When did Pontiac's seige on Fort Detroit end?
Pontiac realized the French would never support him against teh British, he agreed to sign a peace treaty with British government officials
When did Pontiac die? How did he die?
April 20, 1769
He was in Cahokia trading some goods and a young Peroia warrior named Pihi or Black dog clubbed him and stabbed him
Who inspired many future native warriors in their struggle to resist European domination?
Order these is sequence of events.
Treaty of Paris
American Civil War
Pontiac's Resistance (1763)
Royal Proclamation of 1763
Quebec Act of 1774
American Civil War (1776-1783)
Treaty of Paris (1783)
Constitutional Act of 1791
What was the Royal Proclamation in response to?
Pontiac's resistance as the British decided it would be more cost effective than wars
What was the RPC to create (2 things-Aboriginal things)?
-a clear boundary between Aboriginal and non Aboriginal land
-the British crown could only hold and own Aboriginal land so settlers could not purchase it
Why did the British have to take control of Aboriginal land and make decisions regarding the future of the land without consultation of the Aboriginals themselves?
Because settlers were going behind the back of the Crown and buying land from the Aboriginals at discounted prices.
What province was established from the RPC?
The Province of Quebec
Who was Guy Carleton?
He was the English Governor in charge of Quebec.
What did he recognize in Quebec with regards to the population?
He found it impossible to prevent French growth. Dispersing/assimilating the French population was not working.
Why did the British government feel as if they needed to accomodate the Quebecois?
They new a revolution in America was looming so they knew that they needed to reach out to the Quebecois so that they would not side with the Americans.
What were the three main points of the Quebec Act?
1) Quebec had their territory extended to the Great Lake region, Michigan, and west of the Ohio River Valley.
2) French civil law was put in place for matters of property.
3) French Catholics were allowed to practice law and work in government.
What system and collection was kept intact in Quebec with the Quebec Act?
Why didn't the American's like the Quebec Act?
They could not believe that the English government was passing laws that favoured Quebec since they had just fought a war (Plains of Abraham) against them.
When did America declare war on England?
Why did the Americas hope the Canadiens would help their cause?
Because of the way the British were treating them (assimilation)
What position did most Canadiens take in the American Revolution?
They remained neutral
Who won the American Revolutin?
When did the American War of Independence end?
What was the financial situation of Britain after the American War of Independence?
Britain was running out of money
What was the outcome of Treaty of Paris?
-British North America got the right to exist
-Most points, like the new boundary lines, meant that America now got Ohio, went in favour of the Americans.
How many subjects did Great Britain lose with the American War of Independence?
How many settlers remained loyal to the British Crown (Loyalists)?
In 1783, how many Loyalists sought refuge in the "Province of Quebec"? How many to Nova Scotia?
What was the population of Nova Scotia and Quebec, and Quebec alone before the Loyalists?
Quebec and Nova Scotia: 166 000
Just Quebec: 113 000
What language did the majority of Loyalsts speak? What was the language the small minority spoke?
How many acres of land did the Province of Quebec and the colony of Nova Scotia grant the Loyalist refugees? What else did they grant them?
-Between 200 and 1200 acres
-Farm implements, and sufficient food and clothing for two years
What happened to the English speaking demographic in Quebec with the Loyalists?
For the first time, Quebec became home to a large contingent of English speakers.
What did the Constitution Act of 1791 divide Quebec into?
Divided Quebec into two
What did the Constitution Act of 1791 create?
Lower Canada- Quebec
Upper Canada- Ontario
In the Constitution Act which places still remained seperate English colonies?
Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, and Newfoundland and Labrador
Why did Britain feel like an English speaking government was needed?
The English population was growing rapidly since the American Revolution
What two reasons led the French to believe that the Constitution Act was another way to assimilate French culture?
- Upper and Lower Canada were given the same amount of elected representatives in government even though the population of Lower Canada was much larger
- Territory stripped away from Quebec
What group was left out of the Constitution Act altogether?
The First Nations
Where did most First Nations settle after the Constitution Act?
Canada West and joined the Fur Trade and continued to use the buffalo as their main source of food.
Britain wanted the Canadiens to become more British and its Thirteen colonists to move north, not west. Why do you think Britain was unsuccessful in its goals?
The French people did not trust the British. Their history, though Nouvelle France didn't exist on paper, still existed in the minds of the French people. Britain was in debt, and Quevec's economy was in disarray. Whether the majority of the people in Quevec were actually born in Quebec or no, their history was rich. The thirteen colonies were fed up with the British taxes and did not want to be under their rule anymore.
How did the British respond to Pontiac's resistance movement?
The British decided that pacifying First Nations was the best alternative to costly wars as Pontiac's Resistance had shown them that the natives were a threat. Britain issued the RPC in 1763. This kept colonists seperate from First Nations to hopefully avoid land conflicts.
Why would the views of Murray and Carelton about how to govern Quebec differ from those of Britain or colonists in the Thirteen Colonies?
The views of Murray and Carelton woul ddiffer on how to govern Quebec from the British Colonists or Britain because they recognized that the Canadiens were the majority and that it was useless trying to make the small and expected populations of British settlers happy. The Thirteen Colonists and Britain believed that Quebec should be tailored to their wants even though they were the minority.
How would citizens view the return of the tithe? Why would the government make this accommodation?
Citizens would view the return of the tithe as their needs being ignored (Britain) and being overlooked in favour of the French. They may have felt that they were almost tricked into moving to Quebec as they believed that the colony wouldn't be so French. Canadiens, however, would view the return of the thithe as an attempt to recognize their religion and culture. The government made this accommodation because they feared that the French would revolt--try to leave and join the Thirteen Colonies.
Who was James Murray?
The governor of Nouvelle-France from 1760-1763. He was then named British North America's first Governor General after the signing of the Treaty of Paris. He was recalled in 1766.
What was the tithe?
A tax to support the Catholic Church.
Why were some called "Rebels" and others termed "Partiots" in the American Revolution?
It really depends on who is swriting the history. Rebels (British) were reckless individuals who were doing what they did for fun, and partiots (American) were people willing to risk their lives for the independence and freedom of all.
What do you see as the inherent pros and cons of the Constitutional Act for the Loyalists settled in Upper Canada? For Canadiens in Lower Canada? For British administrators?
Loyalists: English speaking, protestant, elected (what they wanted)
Canadiens: Still allowed to be Catholic, seigneurial system, keep their land along the river, speak French
British Administrators: keep the peace, seperation between France and Britain, still had the majority of the say
Loyalists: Didn't have ultimate power (British apointed assembly could veto any law), Britain would still oversee all, hose in Lower Canada were a small minority
Canadiens: Protestants got preferential land, still under a British veto power, loss of some land, unfair representation in government due to much larger population
British Administrators: Contest with unhappiness in Quebec
What are some of the immediate consequences of the arrival of the Loyalists in British North America? What do you think woul dbe some of the long-term, indirect consequences?
Immediate consequences: no farms, confusion because of it, more slavery, famine, more racism, unfair consequences
Indirect consequences: Loss of culture (French), loss of land which caused hurt feelings and betrayal (First Nations), no more Quebec Act, loss of Black population in North America
The Loyalists argued that they should be compensated for their losses. Consider the Loyalist claims from the perspective of the American and British governments at the time. Do you think either government had an ethical obligation to compensate the Loyalists?
Yes I do believe that the American and British governments had an ethical obligation to pay the Loyalists. The terms of the Treaty of Paris outlined the payment, and if the British government wanted the Loyalists support then they should have compensated them.
The commission generally compensated those who had the most to lose, but ignored the smaller, ess well-documented claims. Do you think this was fair? Why or why not.
No, I don't think that this was fair. This still left those people with nothing. They could have at least offered them something isntead of ignoring them completely.