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Flashcards in 2.4 Deck (49):

Where were Metis communities established?

along fur trade routes


What places did the Metis live?

-British Columbia
-Northwest Territories


Where did the first Metis communities appear?

Ontario, particularly around the Great Lakes, and Eastern Canada.


In what year did the HBC give Lord Selkirk a land grant of ____acres centered on teh junction of the ___ and _____ ____ in the ___ ___ ___ to bring in _____ settlers?

-116 000


Why did the Metis oppose the settlement (Lord Selkirk)?

They feared losing their lands, since they were squatters with no leagal title.


What was one of the main jobs of the Metis?

Supplying pemmican to the fur trade as they were also working for both companies


What were the religous beliefs of the Metis?

-Combination of two worlds
-Spirituality was influenced by both their mothers' Aboriginal heritage and their father's European beliefs
-Combine elements of Aboriginal (mostly Ojibwa and Cree) and Catholic or Protestant religions


What was the dominant language of the Metis?



By the ____Michif had developed a diverse set of nouns and adjectives from French and Cree. It also had elements of English mixed in as well.



What were two important parts of Metis culture?

Music and dance


What were the Metis famous for?

fiddle music and dancing


While fiddle was the most common Metis instrument, what other instruments were used?

Concertian, harmonica, hand drum, mouth harp, and finger instruments (like bones and spoons).


Unlike European house holds, the Metis____were allowed to make____and their unique skills were highly____within their community.



What were three responsibilites of Metis women?

1) Making moccasisn
2) Preparing pemmican
3) Tanning and cleaning hides


By what year was the HBC and NWC struggling financially?



What was the HBC doing that was making it difficult for the NWC to survive?

HBC was going more inland with their exploration and cutting costs to a point it was losing money. This was making it difficult for the NWC because this had been its traditional territory.


Why were the beaver population disappearing rapidly?

over exploitation


When and why did the two fur trading companies join?

-Profits were shrinking and changes needed to be made as the two companies had realized there was not enough profit ot support two trading companies.


What was the change that occured in fashion aroudn 1821?

The once ever popular beaver had had be displaced by the top hat made of silk further declining the price/need for beaver belts.


The Hudson's Bay Company was created with how many shares in the company with how many shares going to the NWC and how many going to the HBC?

-55 NWC
-45 HBC


What land did the new HBC control?

All of Rupert's Land including current day BC.


As the merger took over the HBC was able to reduce staff and increase profits. Which groups of people were now even more important? What were their jobs in trade (6 things).

-The First Nations
-Trappers, translators, guides, map makers, canoe repairmen, meat supplies


Why was more land and territory needed?

Most of the farm land had already been claimed in Upper Canada.


Who was Palliser and what was his job?

He was commissioned by HBC and the British government to find the value of what is now Canada.


When did Palliser and his company travel over what is today Saskatchewan? What did they do there?

-1857 and 1858
-They cataloged the logal clora, fauna, and minerals.


What areas did Palliser map in Saskatchewan?

Three distinct regions: think wood country with many lakes in teh far north, arid plaid in the south, and partially wooded country in between.


What is the large region in present-day Saskatchewan and southeast Alberta that was rendered unsuitable by lack of rainfall and timber known as?

Palliser Triangle


What was the Hind Expedition formally named?

The Canadian Red River, Assiniboine and Saskatchewan Exploring Expedition


When did the Hind Expedition depart from Toronto? What was their goal?

-Find a reliable route from Lake Superior to the Red River Settlement and then to inspect the potential of the land west of Red River for its fitness for future settlement


In____the party journeyed from Lake____to Fort___ (left June 1858) and spent___months exploring what is today southern____and _____.



When was HInd's preliminary report to the Legislative Assembly of Upper Canada published? When was his later narrative book with maps and artwork published?



What did Hind and Palliser have in common?

They both identified the river valleys as the best place for future settlement. Although HInd and Palliser were not the first Europeans to cross Saskatchewan, their expeditions were far more scientific and well-recorded than those of previous explorers.


What was another reason for surveying and exploring the West coast?

The Gold Rush that was taking place in California and would move northwards soon.


What did the Goldrush make officials in Canada scared of again?

Manifest Destiny


Where were the Gold Rushes short lived?

Fraser River and Cariboo


What did the Gold Rush set the stage for?

British control over the region and the eventuall progress in joining Canada.


What was the largest overall theme of the gold rush? Why?

The impact on First Nations. Many First Nations gave up their traditional way of life ot settle clsoer to the forts for the fur trade. They were also susceptible to disease and its devestating effects were felt once again.


What causes reserves to be made?

As disease took over and the settlers came running for gold, the power shifted in these regions and many First Nations were struggling to survive.


How was the expansion of the fur trade in British North Americ and consequence of both environmental and human factors?

The consequence of the fur trade in North America was a consequence of both environmental and human factors because many opoulation like the beaver were completely decimated. The Metis lost their land and it formed bitter rivalries among First Nations. Alcohol, guns, and addictions. Rivalries between fur trading companies, french and british.


How did the NWC intensify the rivalry between itself and the HBC? How did this affect the HBC?

-Destroyed each other's boats --> set better trade rates --> bribe the other's F.N traders --> competitive advantage with the voyageurs (close relations with F.N--they went to them to trade).


How did the fur trade rivalry affect the newcomers to the Selkirk colony?

By making them feel unwelcome. The NWC didn't like them. They were probabl struggling to get a footing in the fur trade because of the NWC.


How was the Metis buffalo hunt different than the First Nations?

The F.N used buffalo jumps and pounds and as horses were acquired they would still use the other two but would also nunt with bows and arrows. Metis used jus and would hunt in larger groups. Used a technique called running the herd, horse riders would charge a herd, causing the bison to stampede. The hunters would ride their horses into a herd and fire at close range.


By issuing the Pemmican Proclamation, Governor Macdonell caused suffering among the Metis and Nor'Wester's in order to help the new colony survive. Were his actions justifiable? Why or why not?

No, I don't think that his actions were justifiable because there woul dhave been other way to feed the Selkirk settlers and to help them out without destroying one of the biggest driving forces of Metis economy. It was probably because they were close with the NWC and HBC and Selkirks were connected because of the land grant.


How was Metis culture a consequence of the social, political, geographical, and economic climate of Red River?

Social: They were alligned with the NWC so didn't have good relations with the HBC
Politiical: Had no say in government
Geographical: Occupied land that HBC believed they owned because it was "granted" to them
Economic: All about profit. Lost sight of tradition because of it


Who is more historically significant with respect to the founding of the Selkirk colony: Lord Selkirk himself or his immigrants?

Definitely his immigrants because they were the ones who developed teh colony, formed relationships with First Nations, and went through th estruggles of establishing themselves.


In what ways did the increase in demand for buffalo robes have both positive and negative conseuences for the Metis economy?

Positive: Good for economy, good for relationships with HBC, money because of high demand, middlemen between First Nations and HBC
Negative: Drove buffalo to extinction, relied to heabily on its profit because they were screwed once railway came and cut off migration paths


How was Sayer's trial historically significant for the HBC?

It spelled the end for the HBC's monopoly over the fur trade. The compan could no longer use the courts to enforce its monopoly on the people of Red River.


How was the trial historically significant for the Metis people at Red River?

Metis: Free trade was recognized. Their voices were heard. May have made Metis and First Nations more tolerante and respectable. By extension, British colonial rule because for the first time the Metis and other groups really were te ones in control.


Who was Guillaume Sayer?

A Metis fur trader born inthe Red River area around 1769. He didn't work for NWC or HBC and was arrested for illegal trading.