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Flashcards in 3.1 Deck (42):

Which place did Canada still have strong ties with after confederation in 1867?



Which voices were heard in the creation of Canada? Whose voices weren't heard?

Heard: French and English Canadians
No Heard: First Nations of Canada


Which kind of system of government did Canada choose? What did this mean in terms of structure?

A federal government meaning there would be both a federal government in Ottawa and an individual provincial government in every province to join Confederation.


Who was Canada led by?

John A. Macdonald


What suprred Canadian expansion?

American westward expansion to the south


What was Macdonald's vision for Canada?

To make it a strong economic nation


What did Macdonald develope to spur growth in Canada?

The National Policy


What did the National Policy set out?

different economic roles for the different regions


What did the National Policy depend on?

the development of the west as a market for manufactured foods made in Ontario and Quebec as it aimed to make the west as supplier of resources for Central Canada


How many years did the National Policy dominate Canadian politics?



What were the four points of the National Policy?

1) Development of the west: "sea-to-sea", law and order in the West
2) Building of a transcontinental railway
3) Building of a national economy: done through protective tariffs
4) Dealing ith the First Nations: as well as uniting the French and English


How did Canada's view of Aboriginals shift from the time of contact?

No longer wer Aboriginals looked at as trading partners or military alliances, they were looked upon as more of a barrier in the way of Canadian progress


What two things did Canada look to the west for in 1869?

1) resources
2) immigrant settlement (farmland)


Why did John A want to develope the West?

Populated prairies would create a guaranteed market for goods from Cental Canada. Provide resources for exporting or manufacturing in Central Canada.


When did John A have Rupert's Land transferred to Canada?



In 1869, what were the two largest populations in the West?

The First Nations and Metis. Neither group was consulted about the transnfer of ownership of Rupert's Land.


What did the territory of Rupert's Land all include?

All the land that drained into the Hundons Bay


What was the largest real estate deal in history?

The Rupert's Land Act


When did Canada purchase Rupert's Land?

December 1, 1969


How much did Canada purchase Rupert's Land for?

1.5 million dollars


Where was the first place the land surveyors were sent?

Red River Colony


What did the Metis set up at the time of expansion?

the Metis National Committee which was set up by Louis Riel


What successful buisnesses had already been established at Fort GArry/Red River (present day Winnipeg)?

Successsful trading and farming


The Metis outnumbered English traders__:__



What did Louis Riel want to meet with Macdonald about?

Creating a province


Did Macdonald negotiate with Riel?



Who did the Canadian government send to monitor the surveying?

Lt. Governor William McDougall


What kind of government did Louis Riel form?

A provisional government


Did Macdonald recognize Riel's government?

No. He didn't see it as being real.


What is a provisional government?

Does not take orders from Canada and is independent of Canadian rule.


What was Thomas Scott a part of?

He was a part of a small violent group of Ontarians who moved to the Winnipeg area with the goal of ousting the Catholic Metis and settling the area for Canada.


What did Thomas Scott openly talk about?

Overthrowing the MEtis government.


What did the Metis government arrest Scott on the charge of? What did they do to him?

The arrested him on the charge of treason, tried him, and sentenced him to death. Riel order his execution and he was shot by firing squad.


What difference in opinion did the execution of Thomas Scott cause in regards to Riel?

He as a hero amongst the Metis and in Quevec where he was viewed as adefender of French-Catholic rights. He became the most wnted man in Canada and a murderer in the eyes of Macdonald and English Canada.


Why was Riel forced to flee and where did he flee to?

Montano because he was wanted for murder.


What was the Manitoba Act of___?

The Manitoba Act of 1870 created Manitoba, the 5th province of Canada.


What were the official languages of Manitoba, what two school systems were allowed? What did the Metis receive? Manitoba Act?

French and English
Catholic and Protestant
The Metis received ownership of their land and 1.4 million acres for their children to use.

They never received the land which is why they sued the Canadian government.


Why did the Manitoba push many Metis further west?

The surveyors hadn't gone there yet and there were still buffalo.


Who do you think had the strongest claim in the west?

I think that the Metis had the strongest claim in the west. Even though they had no legal title to the land, their people had been living off of it for many generations. They had established a unique culture in the area, one that combined elements of both traditional First Nations and European practises. The Metis were a peaceul groupf oa people who didn't fight or cause harm to anyone around them. Considering the fact that when the British government granted land to the HBC, the didn't consult the First Nations, they pretty have as much say to the land as the Metis do.


Why do you think that the death of Norbert Parisien didn't get as much coverage as the death of Thomas Scott.

Norbert was a Metis person and Thomas Scott was an orangeman. They wanted to mke an example of Thomas Scott. The provisional government wanted to show their power, to make people understand that they could perform such acts.


Why was the execution of Thomas Scott hisotrically significant?

It was historically significant because it really emphasizedd the hartred taht people had for Louis Riel. It was probaly one of the acts that led to his eventual execution. It also brought back the dislike between the French and English of Canada. Even though the aim of Confederation was mean to dissolve any discontents between the two groups of people, situations like this only brought them back. The execution also showed how the Metis can be trated unfairly when placed against the English.


What justice done in the implementation of the Manitoba Act?

No, justice was not done in the implementation of the Manitoba Act. The act was confusing and did not fully compensate them because lands were also given to non-Aboriginal settlers. The goal was to strip them of their First Nations title. They were given the worst lands--lands that would not help them continue their way of life as they were not by the river. Many promises that were made in the act were not given until years later, if at all. They were no longer valuable to the people anymore and would be of no help in protecting their culture and traditions. I do think that justice could be brought ot the Metis people now in some form. Maybe not all promises will be made as they were written but an equal amount of compensation, compensation that would be useful to the Metis today, would be fully possible.