5.6 Flashcards Preview

HIST: 2015/2016 > 5.6 > Flashcards

Flashcards in 5.6 Deck (39):

What was the most important things stated in the Meech Lake Accord?

That there were two founding nations in Canada: the English and the French--no mention of the First Nations.


What did many First Nations not like about the Meech Lake Accord?

They did not like the idea that more of the responsibility that was Federal responsibility moved into the hands of the Provinces. First Nations believed this Amy limit their ability to have services and later for self government discussions.


What was the major difference between the Meech Lake Accord and the Charlottetown Accord?

The First Nations were involved in the Charlottetown Accord.


What would the Charlottetown Accord have offered for FN?

Advancement for Aboriginals in areas of self-government, in areas of land, environment, language, and culture.


Why did many Aboriginals oppose the CHarlottetown Accord?

Many Aboriginal women's rights would not be significantly protected.


What was the Donald Marshall issue?

A major dispute in Eastern Canada which pitted Mi'kmaq against the federal gov't as well as non-Aboriginals.


What did Donald Marshall believe?

That treaties signed in 1752 and 1760 allowed him and other Aboriginals the right to fish without using government fishing regulations.


What did Aboriginals and non-Aboriginals do to each other's equipment during the hostile time period in the Donald Marshall case?

Sabotaged it


All but___of the___FN groups have decided to join agreements with the Canadians government in the Donald Marshall case?

5 of the 34


What did the government want after the Oka crisis?

More insight on the problems facing Aboriginals inCanada/


What was the Royal Commission to report on? How long did their report take?

Problems facing Aboriginals. It took 5 years as they toured most of Canada.


What did the Royal Commission report include?

440 recommendations on every aspect of Aboriginal life.
$35 billion in new spending was recommended over 20 years. Creation of Aboriginal self-government with the ability to collect taxes, killing off the Aboriginal Act, and recognization of the Metis people.


What did the Royal Commission document lead to?

The much anticipated apology for residential school to Aboriginals.


Has the Royal Commission worked?

No as very little work has been done to dramatically impact and improve the lives of Aboriginals in Canada.


Which churches all apologized for their roles in residential schools?

The Anglican, Catholic, Presbyterian, and United churches


When did PM Harper apologize for the Canadian government action in the Residential Schools?



Why do some still demand an inquiry into the residential schools?

Tuberculosis killed between 30-40% of the children while many more were physically and sexually abused.


What is the cost of the payout ot Aboriginals and when does it close to applicants?

Just over 4 billion dollars and closed in July 2014.


According the the Truth and Reconciliation Commitee formed by the Canadian Parliament, a person is entitled to compensation for their time in residential schools if they do what?

Discuss what happened to them and give details of their time in the school.


What is Compensation called for residential schools?

Common Experience Payments


Who was Common Experience Payments made available to?

All residential school students who were alive as of May 30, 2005. For residential school students were eligible for $10 000 for the first year or part of a year they attended school, plus $3000 for each subsequent years.


what happened to any money remaining from the $1.9 billion package of residential school compensation?

It would be given to foundations that support learning needs of aboriginal students.


How much has been paid as of April 15, 2010? How many cases does this represent?

1.55 billion
Represents 75800 cases (that total is now over 4 billion)


What does acceptance of the Common Experience Payment mean?

Releases the government and churches from all further liability relating to the Indian residential school experience, except in cases of sexual abuse and serious incidents of physical abuse.


What was the major issue Aboriginals had about Meech Lake?

The major issues that Aboriginals had about the Meech Lake Accord was that there was the idea that there were only two founding nations of Canada (the French and the English), and that power over Aboriginal affairs would be given to the province. At the root of these concerns lay a larger issue: the Aboriginals had not been a part of the Meech Lake Accord negotiations.


What was the major issues Aboriginal shad with the Charlottetown Accord?

The major issues that Aboriginals had with the Charlottetown Accord was that it would not protect Aboriginal women’s rights.


List 3 reasons why the creation of Nunavut has been successful for both Canada and the Aboriginal people that inhabit it?

Three reasons why the creation of Nunavut has been successful for both Canada and the Aboriginals people that inhabit it are: the large amount of resources that are present there, because the government is advised by a council of Elders that are familiar with Inuit history, values, culture, and traditional knowledge the government has established a variety of policies and procedures to preserve Inuit culture, and it was the largest land-claim settlement in Canadian history.


Understand the issues the Lubicon Lake Cree had, who Dudley George was, and why the housing development was such a hot button topic to the Six Nations.

Issues the Lubicon Lake Cree Had: announced a boycott of the 1988 Winter Olympics in Calgary to protest the environmental degradation of their territory by forestry and oil companies and the government’s inaction on their land claim. They were abet to attract media attention and the support of international groups. Dudley George: in 1995 members of the Stony Point Ojibway FN occupied Ipperwash Provincial Park in Ontario. They asserted their right to the land which had been taken from their community during WWII. Dudley George was one of the protesters and he was shot and killed. Why Housing Development Was Such a Hot Topic to the Six Nations: In Caledonia, Ontario. Protestors occupied the housing development under construction because the area had been a part of their land claim since the mid-nineteenth century. Resulted in several clashes between protestors, non-Aboriginal residents, and police.


What was at issue with the Donald Marshall case? Has the case been put to rest?

The issue with the Donald Marshall case was that he said that his treaty rights allow him to fish out of season, but the government ruled that treaty rights can be limited by Canadian law. Although the government was able to negotiate with 29 of the 34 FN involved in the fishery dispute, some FN refuse to have their fishing activities limited by government regulation.


What is the specific Claims Tribunal Act and why is this even around? What is the underlying issue?

The Specific Claims Tribunal Act is around to address the large number of outstanding claims. It established a tribunal of impartial judges to make final decisions on claims when negotiations fail, applied to claims that are valued up to $150 million, allowed FN to take their claims to the independent tribunal if the government has not responded within three years, opened up the claims process to types of claims that were not allowed under the old system , such as pre-Confederation claims, committed Canada for the first time to a specific amount of money to resolve claims: at least $250 million each years for ten years.


Why was te Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples assembled?

The Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples was assembled because of the Oka Crisis (a specific land claim by the Mohawks of Kanesatake).


What was supposed to come from the Royal Commission?

What was supposed to come from this commission was $35 billion in new spending over twenty years, creation of Aboriginal self-governments with the power to collect taxes, elimination of the Indian Act and replacement of the Department of Indian and Northern Affairs with two new departments—one for FN and one for Inuit, recognition of Metis peoples and their land rights, and a new royal proclamation acknowledging past injustices and committing the government to the formation of a new relationship with Aboriginal peoples.


What was the Kelowna Accord (important)? What happened to the Kelowna Accord?

The Kelowna Accord was to address concerns raised in the Report of the Royal Commission. The meeting resulted in a five-year %5 billion plan to improve the lives of Aboriginal peoples. It tagged improved education, housing, economic development, health, and water services. Paul Martin’s Liberal government was defeated in the 2006 election resulting in a Conservative minority. Aboriginal leaders were disappointed with the new gov’t. Rather than the aver $1 billion annual commitment over a fie-year period as promised the accord, the Harper government allocated just $150 million in 2006 and $300 million in 2007 towards some of the accord’s recommendations.


What is the importance of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission?

The Truth and Reconciliation Commission offers former students the opportunity to share their stories in a supportive environment.


What are the ethical responsibilities of Canada to the residential school survivors? Do you think that the government, churches, and other organizations responded appropriately? Why or why not?

The ethical responsibilities of Canada to the residential school survivors is to try their best to compensate them for their time spent in the schools and the endless struggles that they have endured because of the schools. I do think that the government and churches and other organizations have responded appropriately. I don’t know what else they could say or do.


Why did it take so long for Canada to sign the Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples? What might be the consequences of Canada's endorsement of the declaration for FN, Metis, and Inuit people and for all Canadians?

It took Canada so long to sign the declaration because of concerns about the declaration’s vague wording regarding control of lands and resources and the requirement that countries obtain “prior informed consent” from Indigenous peoples before enacting new laws or administrative measures. They were worried that the wording could reopen previously settled land claims and existing treaties. The consequences of Canada’s endorsement for Aboriginal peoples and all Canadians would be more recognition of those who have Aboriginal descent, and it may force the government to reevaluate land claims which would be harmful to other Canadians if they reside on the land under evaluation.


Have the lives of Aboriginals improved a decade after the Royal Commission? Why or why not?

No, I don’t think that the lives of Aboriginals have improved within the ten years of the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples because they are still living in poverty, some don’t have hot water or sewage systems, and a fair few don’t consider their main source of water safe to drink. They are ranked 76th among 174 nations on the United Nations Development Index while other Canadian communities ranked 8th.


Why is self determination important for Aboriginal leaders? What does it represent?

Self determination is important for Aboriginal leaders because they believe that it is the key solution to the variety of issues that face their people today. They belief that it is the power to make decisions and take action to ensure their continued existence and health as a community.


Why is the Nisga's Treaty so important? How can it be used moving forward?

The Nisga’a treaty is a milestone because it was the result of a long process tat began in 1980 the treaty calls for a democratic and accountable Nisga’a government operating within the Constitution. The treaty acknowledges the Nisga’a right to ownership and use of 2019 square kilometres of lands and resources. It acknowledges their laws and practices and establishes a significant level of self-governance and sets out decision-making authority They laws are subject to federal and provincial laws. Nisga’a laws must meet or exceed existing provincial or federal standards. It is important and can be used moving foreword as a model for future treaties between the government and Aboriginal peoples.