Flashcards in Lesson 5 Deck (54):
When did Samuel de Champlain set out for Acadia?
What did Champlain and de Monts want to do in Acadia?
set up a trading post.
What happened between Champlain and the First Nations at first?
violent attacts and carious attempts to disembark their ship.
What did Champlain do with his dead and what was the First Nations reaction?
burried them and marked their graves with crosses then got back on his ship
the First Nations came out of his forest and dug up the dead and threw the crosses into the sea
/where did de Monts and Champlain return to and what did they build there?
the Bay of Fundy
they built a new settlement: Port-Royal in Nova Scotia
Why did de Monts go back to France?
to reassure his partners, who blamed him for investing to heavily in settlements to the detriment of the fur trade
In July of what year did Chmplain continue his journey?
On what day did he find a site worthy of the setllement he wanted to create?
Why was this site what he was looking for?
he was struck by the advantages of the site: the cliffs rose 98 meters above sea level and at this point the St. Lawrence was only one kilometer wide.
What would this site later become?
Who did the French ally with? What did this alliance become as the English allied with the Iroquois?
-It became a military alliance
When did the battle of Ticonderoga Point happen?
What was Champlain's role in the battle of Ticonderoga Point?
he led a handful of French soldiers and 60 Huron warriers to engage the Iroquois, south of Quebec.
What did the Huron tell Champlain to do? What was the result?
They told him how to identify the Iroquois chiefs and Champlain and one other French soldiers immediately shot and killed 6 Iroquois war chiefs. The Iroquois lost courage and fled into the woods (it was the guns). Battle was a huge vantage point because they killed the Iroquois chiefs.
New France is the name used for which places?
Quebec, New Brunswick, Acadia, and parts of Nova Scotia
Champlain needed money for New France. Who was he able to convince to send him money?
A group of 100 investors
What was the goal of Champlain?
to establish a French Empire in North America, and to convert Aboriginals to Christianity
Because of Champlains goals, what were Champlain and his company "One Hundred Associates" given control over?
the territory that France had claimed
What made it difficult to expand their empire?
the fact that the Iroquois had allied so closely with the English and continued to attack which prevented Champlain from clearing farm land and being able to really expand into New France
Which king (who came into power in 1663) was dissapointed with the progress the One Hundred Associates had made? What did he do about it?
-King Louis XIV
-He took over the land and made it a Royal Colony Nouvelle-France
-This means that every aspect of life would be under the control of the King and his appointed council
When was Nouvelle-France made an official colony of France?
What happened to the One Hundred Associates?
they were cancelled and a new charter company called the West Indies Company was created
What was the biggest reason that France was struggling to sustain itself?
lack of population growth
What did Jean Talon do?
he took a census of the population
What did lack of women result in?
How many young women did the king send to France? Between what years did this take place?
almost 800 and between 1663 and 1673
What were these young girls called?
Les FIlles du Roi (Daughters of the King) because they received a dowry from him as well as free transport to New France
What percent of Quebecois people can trace their lineage back to the Filles du Roi?
What portion of the 20 million French people were considered beggars?
What was the Seigneurial System?
the land system of the time
encouraged the settlement of New France to promote the distribution of land
Who did the Seigneurial System involve?
-tenants knows as Habitants
Who was in control of the land and who would he distribute it to?
-the King of France
-dsitribute it to: French nobles, army officers, merchants, government officials, Roman Catholic Church
Access to the____was important.
What was the typical shape of a farm and why?
a long narrow strip so that they could build as many farms along the river as possible
Who was the Seigneur?
an owner of a piece of land which he would either farm himself or lease out for others to work
Who would the Seigneur lease the farm land out to?
What was the air of the seigneurial system?
get the land settled as quickly as possible so that people could raise enough produce to feed its people
What were the duties of the Seigneur? What would happen if he didn't complete his duties?
-clear the land
-find settlers for it
-maintain a house to which the habitants came to pay their rents and settle minor disputes
-had to build a mill to grind grain
If he didn't complete these duties the land would be taken away from him
What were some of the responsibilities of Les Habitants?
-building themselves houses
-ploughing their land
-pay Seigneur various forms of taxes: grain, other products, some money
Could Habitants eventually own their own farms?
yes, they coul dand they could leave it to their children or sell it outside the family.
this was very important and one of the main reasons people came to New France as they could own land and pass it down to their children
Did the British keep the Seigneurial system after 1750? When was it abolished?
The system of land accesss in New France revolved around the idea of...?
Could sons of original haitant eventually be given ownership rights to the land? What did they then become?
-they would then become Seigneurs themselves
Where the Seigneurs in New France and the Seigneurs in France equally wealthy?
No, the Seigneurs who came to New France were often on the brink of poverty. The Seigneurs in France were wealthy nobles
What was the first missionary group to come to New France? Were they successful?
-they had little success
Who came after the Recollets? Were they successful?
-they were a much larger group and found a footing in Nouvelle-France
Why did Samuel de Champlian explore Canada? Who paid for his voyage and what flag was he flying under?
-France needed a new source of wealth
-the King of France
-the French Flag
Who were the French allies in New France? Who were they unfriendly with?
-friendly with the Algonquins and Montagnais
-unfriendly with the Iroquois
Who were the Black Robes?
What disease did the Black Robes come with and what was its impact?
-killed over half the population and a lot of elderrs who contained the traditional oral history of the tribes
Why did they build St. Marie?
fortified missionin Huron territoru
sanctuary and base of ooperations for Jesuits working in the area
What did St. Marie develope into?
St. Marie developed into a hospital, church, and seperate dwellings for converted Huron
Why did Huronia fall? What happened to St. Marie?
Huronia fell because the Iroquois unleased an attack on them. The Huronia were weakened by smallpox, divided by Christianity, and could barely muster a defense. The Jesuits burned down St. Marie so it could not fall into Iroquois hands. The Huron became Canada's lost tribe.