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Flashcards in 2.5 Deck (51):

Why did Canada go into a political deadlock?

Canada East and Canada West had equal say in the elected assembly and both sides blocked each others agenda.


Why was "Rep by Pop" introduced by the West (English)?

A large increase in English settlers.


Which two individuals agreed that The Act of the Union (1841) wasn't working?

Cartier and Macdonald


What were the poplation demographics of Canada East and Canada West in 1867?

The English speakinp population in Ontario vastly outnumbered the French.


What was the population of Ontario and Quebec in 1867?

Ontario: 1.6 million
Quebec: 1.1 million


What was the problem with the population numbers in Ontario and Quebec?

They had the same seats in government so no decisions were getting made. Ontario believed it wasn't fair because they had the bigger population but no votes were being passed in legislation because everything was 50/50. There was no rep by pop when Quebec had the parger population because it was a British colony.


What did France and Britain claim in the American Civil War?



Even though Britain was neutral, what did she do?

Britain still needed cotton from the South which did not make the North and Abraham Lincoln happy.


What happened while sailing to Britain to two confederate members?

They were taken hostage by the Americans.


How many troops had the Americans deployed to Canada? How did Britain feel?

-14000 troops
-Britain was scared


Why would Canadian forces have been able to hold the Americans back if they attacked?

Lack of quick transportation (needed a rail system for defense).


What was St. Alban's Raid?

A group of confederate soldiers attacked Vermont then escaped back to Canada before being persecuted. Once again America threatened to attack Canada.


What was the Trent affair?

In November 1861, an American warship stopped the British mail ship Trent which was heading back to Britain with two Confederate agents on Board. They were travelling to Britain to ask for British support for the Confederate cause. The Americans took the two agents prisoner despite the ship being in neutral waters. Britain threatened to retaliate if they did not let them go which they did because Abraham Lincoln didn't want a war with Britain while he was already fighting a war in his own country.


Why strengthened the fear that America would capture all of Canada with their "Manifest Destiny" craziness?

America purchased New Mexico and California and annexed Texas into their union. They were going further South then they ever had before. Scared they would go further North.


What were the Fenian Raids?

In 1859 a group of Irishmen formed a brotherhood called the Fenians to promote the liberation of Ireland from British control. They believed that if they could capture some British North American colonies, they could hold the colonies ransom in return for Irelands freedom. In 1866, the Fensians made several attempts to raid British North America.


Give an example of a Fenian Raid?

In the spring of 1866, the Fenians launched a small strike atgainst New Brunswick. Five Fenians crossed the border and tore down the Union Jack.


What was the more serious Fenian Raid in May of 1866?

May 31, 1866
1500 Fenians crossed the Niagara River into Canada West. In the Battle of Ridgeway fighting took place between the Fenians and a force of Canadian milita and British soldiers. Six canadians died, and thirty were wounded.


Till what year did Fenian raids continue?



What did the Fenian raids lead Canadians to believe?

That they needed a united defense because the fenian raids helped promote a desire for union among the BNA colonies.


What were their movements towards in ninteenth century BNA in the maritimes?

An atlantic colony union


What was the Charlottetown Conference? When did it take place?

-A conference to discuss the union of the atlantic colonies
-September, 1864


What was New Brunswick's biggest debate at the Charlottetown Conference? What was Nova Scotia's? PEI? Remember, that Mcdonald and Cartier were there to try to convince them to join confederation instead of a atlantic colony union.

New Brunswick- the inter-colonial railway. Some believed it would be better with rail links to the US
Nova Scotia- most prosperous and populated of the Maritime provinces. Due to strong ties with Britain, it was influenced by pro-confederation attitude
PEI- almost entirely owned by people that did not live on the island and decided to wait before entering Confederatin.


What did the coalition that showed up at the Charlottetown conference say to convince them to join Confederation?

A railway, their debts, and a centralized government.


What did they discuss when they met the following month in Quebec City? What new group was present?

-They prepared 72 resolutions for their legislature to consider and agreed on a final meeting in London in 1866.
-Newfoundland observers were present.


What was the key question at the Quebec Conference?

What form a union of the colonies would take.


Who was the principle advocate for a legislative union? What is a legislative union?

-John A. Mcdonald
-One central government for the entire nation. He believed a strong central government was best insurence for the unity of a new nation


What did the US Civil War demonstrate, in Mcdonald's mind?

The dangers of a federal system in which the sates had been given too much power at the expense of the central (national) government.


Who opposed a legislation union and why?

French Canadian leader and Atlantic Canada as they believed that their religion, culture and language would be in jeaoprady.


What all worked towards Confederation?

1. French-English conflict
2. Short-lived governments
3. End of reciprocity with the United States
4. End of Free Trade with Britain
5. Trade barriers between colonies
6. Need for railway to improve trade between colonies
7. American Civil War
8.Fenian raids
9.Manifest Destiny
10. Need for a railway to assist troop movement in case of attack from the United States

a. Political deadlock in the Procince of Canada (1 and 2)
b. Economic challenges (3, 4, 5 and 6)
c. Pressures from the United States (7, 8, 9, and 10)

Canadian Confederation (a, b, and c)


Who were the major drivers of Confederation?

Canada East and West


What led to the Great Coalition (1864)?

Long-time political opponents, faced with continual political instability and deadlock.


Who were the three major political figures?

John A, Mcdonald, George Etienne-Cartier, George Brown


What are the 5 main points the three politicians argued?

1) A united colony would be much richer and stronger
2) There would be one army to protect Canada
3) One country is more important than several colonies
4) Interdependency rather than relying on foreign markets
5) Better funding for railway canals


What did the Quebec Resolutions propose?

A federal union with authority divided between a new central government and provincial governments. This is the only thing that would be acceptable to Quebec and Atlantic Canada.


What was the Reciprocity Treaty?

1854- allowed for free trade on products such as timber, grain, coal, livestock, and fish. In the spring of 1866, the US cancelled the Reciprocity Treaty becuase some Americans believed that if the US could cripple the economy of BNA, the British colonies would be forced into a union with the US.


Why did Britain push for Confederation?

The BNA colonies were becoming a financial burden.


Where the F.N peoples included in the Confederation process?

No chiefs were invited to the negotiation table and no land was set aside for their use.


What happened to the F.N with Confederation?

They fall under the jurisdiction of the Federal government.


What did the RPC ( previous act that involved F.N) set ot that Canadian government didn't follow?

1) Treaties be made with First Nations to acquire land
2) British were to assist in settling disputes between First Nations and Europeans
3) As well as stating the special relationship between First Nations and the British Crown


When was the next time the FN were dealt with?

1880s, when crippling government policies devestated FN culture in Canada.


What challenges might the railway pose?

It would be very expensive and the colonies didn't have much money.


Why would Britain's relationship with the US affect BNA?

They were a British colony. The blockade runners (St. Albans raid) probably came from BNA because the US and BNA shared borders. US figured that if Britain was still getting their cotton, they were sort of siding with the South. Britain sort of fear the North would retaliate by going after them. This woul dmake Canada see that they need to stick together and finish the railway to claim the west so the US didn't get to it first.


Discuss what the term manifest destiny was and why this would worry the early Canadians.

Manifest Destiny meant that the US felt as if it was their god-given right to have all of North America. It would worry the early Canadians because the US had already annexed Tesas in 1845 even though Mexico still claimed it and they also acquired New Mexico and California. Many thought that after the Civil War, they should focus on annexing BNA. It was a popular idea.


What caused the Atlantic colonies to choose Confederation over a maritime union?

Better defence if they were united, centralized government would assume debts of the colonies that joined--> many colonies were burdened with debt from railway building.


How might the indifference--whether perceived or real--might have influenced the desire for Confederaion within BNA?

The BNA colonies might have felt as if Britain was pushing them away. Britain stopped free trade, and supported the railway and the ideas of seperate and more individual colonial matters. These views made many Canadians feel as if they did not have any connection to Britain.


Is there any evidence that the Atlantic colonies were dragged into Confederation? G

There is a bit of evidence in the fact that the US calcelled the Reciprocity Treaty. Britain kept pushing and may felt as if they had no choice. Also, representatives from the Canada's kind of forced their way into the Charlottetown Conference.


Take a historical perspective to view Confederation from the perspective of the First Nations. How have you been ocnsulted about confederation?

If I were a FN I woul dbe pissed off. They weren't consulted at all--their opinion did not matter at all. It was as if they didn't exist at all. It ws reminiscent of the way that they had be treated in the past with the various proclamations and land grants (Constitution Act, Rupert's Land, Gradual Civilization Act).


Examine the ethical dimensions of the Enfranchisement Act from both a historical and contemporary standpoint?

Historical: wanted to assimilate them, offering them an easy way to get the rights (most of) that the English people got, they assumed that they would want this, it ws a privledge, they had to right to have a sya
Contemporary: blackmail almost, the Europeans believed they were superior--they were alwas right--even when they were suppressing an entire group of people, they had no say--even when they were there first


Why did Cartier want a federal style of government? In what ways do you think goals of Quebec politicans have changed and stayed the same?

Because all governing would not be done only by the national government but by the provinces as well. They would get to look after local concerns (language, religion, culture). Quebec is still going for seperatism these day so they really have stayed the same in that way. They have changed because they have adopted more European views and area more a part of the English culture than they were before.


Why did Macdonald want a more centralized government than the US? What other people and groups forced him to modify his vision of Canada's Government?

Macdonald wanted a more centralized government than the US because he believed that the Civil War happened because the states had been given too much power. Those that made him modify his vision were people like Cartier and Atlantic Canada who didn't want to lose their regional identities.


What groups were represented at the Confederation discussions? What groups were left out? What impact would this have on the future of Canada?

Represented: Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Canada East and Canada West
No Represented: First Nations
This would cause problems because their views were not considered which made a very eurocentric Canada. Probably the reason why we are still supressing them today and the reason why they live in poverty or on reserves, etc.