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Flashcards in 4.7 Deck (50):

What did the Duplessis administration (1936-1959) adopt to ensure la survivable?

A policy of isolationism to protect the province from the meddlesome activities of teh federal gov't. Ex. Refusing to become involved in any of the federal funding for welfare.


What happened during the later years of the Duplessis administration? What resulted in lifestyle and religion?

English business was allowed to come into the province to help provide the tax base to maintain the provincial welfare system. This created a revolution in lifestyles for the French Canadian people as many moved to the cities and became better educated to take industrial jobs and teh Roman Catholice influence began to fade.


What was the Quiet Revolution?

Initiated by the Lesage's gov't in the 1960s. He brought Quebec into the 20th century by revising the education system and initiating Quebec Hydro.


What happened because of the Quiet Revolution? What did the Johnson administration change b/c of it?

After this Quebec nationalism began to steadily increase until the Johnson administration even changed the name of the Quebec legislature to the assemble Nationale du Quebec in the '60s and separatists began to develop.


What did the FLQ do and why? When did it begin?

Terrorize Montreal in their pursuit of Quebec sovereignty since 1963


Who were the targets of the FLQ?

Federal got't, English-speakers, Anglo business owners, Catholic Church--all partners in the French oppression.


What were the goals of the FLQ?

Socialism, freedom from Anglo tyranny for French speakers, self rule for the Quebecois, increased economic opportunity for French-Canadian strivers, and amnesty for the 23 FLQ members imprisoned for past terrorist acts.


What did the October Crisis develope out of?

Escalating FLQ activity in 1970. When they stepped up from letter bombs to the kidnapping of British trade commissioner James Cross, and the kidnapping and murder of politician Pierre LaPort, Premier Bourassa asked for troops so Prime Minister Trudeau initiated the War Measures Act.


What happened to the FLQ members involved?

They were caught or allowed to escape to exile in Cuba.


When did teh Canadian Forces appear on the streets of Ottowa and when did they appear on the streets of Montreal?

October 12
October 15


Under provisions of what act did the armed forced appear?

The National Defence Act


How many people were arrested and held without charge, and how many were convicted, under the War Measures Act?



___became a political tool for both federalist a and separatists with the introduction of the _____(___)?

Offical Languages Act


Who initiated the Official Langues Act and why?

Trudeau to demonstrate Quebec's equality within confederation.


When did the Quebecois initiate their own Official Language Act and why? What did it do?

1974 because they feared for the future of the language due to immigrants.
It made French the official language of Quebec which essentially forced all non-English children to study in French schools. Difference is the act of 69 didn't actually force anyone into anything, this one did.


What was Bill 101 introduced for? What did it ?

The Charter of French Language in 1977 which all but forbid the use of English at all in the province and forced all children to attend French schools.


What did the Supreme Court do to Bill 101? Why didn't it matter?

Struck it down
Maintained through the application of a "not withstanding" clause in the constitution


Who was the father of Bill 101?

Camille Laurin


What kind of affect did Bill 101 have?

It struck the air out of the separatist movement by showing that such a radical action was possible within Confederation.


Why was Aboriginal political activism non existent throughout much of the period between the 1920s and 1970?

It was against federal law. So until 1970, FN communities were not only legally ripped apart by abusive residential schooling systems, but were legally prohibited from publicizing or protesting their circumstances. Unable to fight for their own land.


What was the White Paper? When was it issued and why? What did Trudeau believe?

1968 by Trudeau
On Aboriginal policy that argued that Canada shouldn't negotiate any further treaties with teh native peoples. He believed treaties were something only signed between sovereign nations.


What did the Trudeau gov't not believe about FN land rights claims?

They did not agree with them because they were too broad or unspecific.


What did the Aboriginals issue in response to the White Paper? When?

The Citizens Plus in 1970 or the Red Paper. it countered all of the proposals of the White Paper. An Aboriginal delegation, backed by other Canadians citizens met with the gov't and successfully convinced it to radically change it policies and positions.


When was the Drybones case? What happened?

1969 and aboriginal man named Joseph Drybones was found drunk in a Yellowknife hotel lobby and was arrested. The Indian Act did not allow Aboriginals to drink off of reserves and he fought his case all the way to the Supremem Court who found that the police had discriminated against him because of his race and the ruling caused the no-drinking clause in the Indian Act to fall into disuse.


What was the Calder Case?

A Nisaga elder in BC sued the federal gov't saying that it had not extinguished their land claims and the gov't needed to enter into treaty negotiations. The BC Supremem court and the court of appeal rejected the claim, but th Nisaga'a appealed to the Supremem court of Canada for recognition of the title. They did not win their case but it paved the way for the federal gov'ts comprehensive land claims process. It set the ground work for treaties in the works in BC.


Why did Lionel Groulx want to protect the Catholic Church in Quebec?

1. Lionel Groulx wanted to protect the Catholic Church because he believed Quebec culture was linked to the Catholic faith. Preserving the church’s influence inQuebec was the best way to preserve the province’s distinct culture.


Why was the Union Nationale created? What did it promote?

2. Concerns about maintaining Quebec’s distinct culture contributed to the formation of the Union Nationale. The Union Nationale promoted the preservation of traditional rural ways of life. It promoted defending frenchlanguage and quevec’s culture, support for the Catholic Church to resist outside influence.


Why did the Cathlic Church not change in Quebec?

3. The Catholic Church didn’t change in Quebec because tit had control over social programs (orphanages, schools, and hospitals). They were closely aligned with political parties, the Union Nationale, and the Church governed the kinds of books andplays that were published, subject studied, and even the art and sculpture on display. The church resisted change and promoted the view that the preservation of Quebec’s culture could be achieved through a focus on family, church, and rural life.


What was the Quiet Revolution? What as involved?

The Quiet Revolution began with the election of Jean Lesage’s Liveral Party in Quebec in 1960. During the Quiet Revolution the Lesage's gov’t accelerated changing social values such as high birth rate and early marriages (based on rural way of life). Women gained more legal rights, and the development of a social safety net similar to the one developing in the rest of Canada. New labour code that allowed gov’t employees the right to strike. They lowered the voting age from twenty-one to eighteen and changed the electoral map to provide better representation ofr urban areas.


List the specific changes Quebec underwent during the Quiet Revolution. What aspects of Quebec culture continued throughout the revolution?

Specific Changes:abolished married women’s legal status as minors, Quebec gov’t promoted “made-in-Quebec” programs, labour code that allowed employees the right to strike, lowered the voting age from 21 to 18, education issues economic advancement (Hydro-Quebec).
The aspects that maintained were Quebec people still wanting to main their distinct culture and wanting to be more separate from the rest of Canada. They were all still Catholic


What changes occured in Quebec education because of the Quet Revolution?

6. Changes that occurred in the education was threat the Lesage's gov’t created a commission of inquiry on education. The Parent Commission’s report suggested a reworking of the entire education system in the province. Recommended the creation of a provincial ministry of education and standardized curriculum that would be used by both Catholic and Protestant school boards. Curriculum was modernized, moving it away from the religious values. Age for compulsory schooling was raised from fourteen years to sixteen years old.


What party is the PQ and what is their mandate?

9. The party that is the PQ is the Parti Quebecois. They wanted Quebec to be completely separate from Canada.


What did Trudeau believe about the fathers of confederation and Quebec?

Trudeau believed that the form of federalism created by the Fathers of Confederation was more than enough to ensure cultural protection for Quebecois.


What was the FLQ? What did they promote?

The FLQ was formed in 1961. It's goal was to achieve Quebec independence by any means necessary, including the use of violence.


What was the October Crisis?

The October Crisis happened when, by Oct. 15, more than 6000 troops were stationed in Montreal. On Oct. 16, the federal government declared a state of of insurrection—a rebellion. The federal gov’t then invoked the War Measures Act for the first time ever while Canada was not at war. The rights of Canadians were suspended and the FLQ was banned. The day after the War Measures Act was instituted, the FLQ assassinated Pierre Laporte.


What is the desired affect of the language laws for Quebec?

The desired effect of the language laws was to strengthen previous provincial language laws. They wanted to ensure that their province’s population would remain primarily francophone.


What is Bill 22 and what does it promote?

Bill 22 was the Official Language Act and it promoted all public institutions to conduct business in French and all contract to be written in French. Businesses were required to adopt a French name and advertise in French. Children of immigrants were required to attend French-language schools.


What is Bill 101 and what does it promote?

Bill 101 declared that French was to be the only language that could be used in government, the judiciary, schools, advertising, and business.


What did teh election results tell you about public opinion on sovereignty?

1The election results show that the public opinion on sovereignty was split almost 50/50.


What does the term patria te mean and why was Trudeau in favor of it?

Patriate means making the Constitution Canadian, not British. Trudeau was in favour of it because he thought that it would appease the Quebecois and it was also a good idea for Canada to assert our individuality as a nation.


What happened at the Victoria Conference?

18. At the Victoria Conference, the provinces and federal governments seemed to have reached an agreement on the constitutional change. But in the end, Quebec rejected the charter because Prime Minister Trudeau refused his request of more control over social policy.


Why did Quebec not Patriate the constitution?

19. Quebec didn’t patriate the constitution because he Trudeau refused Bourassa’s request for more control over social policy. On one hand he wanted to agree because it would be useful for Quebec’s needs and to have the negotiations end in failure would give the Parti Quebecois more reason to argue that Quebec needed to be seperate. But on the other hand he needed to ensure that voters would not see the Victoria Charter as promising merely cons metric constitutional changes.


The 1980 referendum on sovereignty was a significant event in Canadian history. What might be different perspectives on NWC it was historically significant? Consider the views of a federalist, a Sovereigntist, a new immigrant to Quevec, and an aboriginal person in Quebec?

Some different perspectives on why it was historically significant: federalist- working towards making sure that Quebec is included without separating. They would be happy because they are still a part of Canada. Sovereigntist- they would view it as Canada not ceding to Quebec’s unique political position once again. New immigrant to Quebec- they would view it as a good thing probably because they came to the country of Canada, not the country of Quebec. Aboriginal- they would be happy I suppose because the Inuit wanted to remain in Canada anyway. They had a long withstanding relationship with Canada. I am sure that they were fearful of what would happen to them if they were to not be living in Canada anymore.


What were immediate and long-term consequences of Quebec's language laws? Do you think the laws were successful? What evidence do you have?

Immediate: loss of English culture, contention between English and French
Long Term: was a spark for the separatist movement, helped strengthen the divide between English and French Quebec and Canada.


How was the Calder case historically significant for FN, Metis and Inuit people in Canada? How was this significant for all in Canada?

22. In the Calder Case, the Nisga’a First Nations from BC argued that it still held legal title to its traditional lands because they had never signed a treaty. The court rejected their claim on technical grounds but did indicate that Aboriginal title could exist in common law. This meant Aboriginal title claims were not dependant on recognition through written laws. Aboriginal title could be considered extinguished only through an explicit agreement such as a treaty. This forced the federal gov’t to change its policies on land claims. The gov’t could no longer reject or delay claims with the argument that the claims needed to first establish Aboriginal title in the case. It was significant for all because it helped in other land title cases and we are all living on FN land in this country.


In what ways does this story about the James Bay and Northern Quevec Agreement show change and continuity?

Change: the courts in Canada paid more attention to the FN by ordering it to be stopped. They were more willing to negotiate with them and have treaties made.
Continuity: The relationship between Canada and the FN, they were compensated as they usually are, the Eurocentric attitude is still prevalent in the fact that they thought that they could build whatever they wanted wherever they want to.


What was the Berger inquiry? Why was it important?

24. The Berger Inquiry was in the early 1970s and it was when developers proposed a pipeline through the Mackenzie River Valley to transport natural gas and oil from the Arctic Ocean to Alberta and then to the US. But the region is home to numerous Aboriginal people and the project would cause significant disruption to the environment during its construction and operation. It is significant to the rights of Aboriginal peoples in Canada because it was decided that it should proceed only after further study and settlement of Aboriginal land claims in the affected region. It included an honest look at the lives and living conditions of Aboriginal people in the North as well as the impact Canadian developments were having on them.


Understand a few view points of western Canada?

25. Some viewpoints from Western Canada: many believe that their needs are not adequately heard or addressed by the federal government. Started shortly after Confederation with the federal gov’ts heavy-handed approach in Red River in 1870 and the National Policy which many saw as favouring central Canada.


What is the NEP? Why is teh Liveral party not a favourite choice in Alverta?

26. The National Energy Program (NEP) was established in 1980 over concerns that too much of Canada’s oil industry was owned by foreign companies and that Canadian consumers were too vulnerable to large price increases and supply disruptions caused by foreign countries. The NEP: established new rules that transferred a significant portion of oil industry royalties from the provincial gov’t’s to the federal government, greatly expanded the role of Petro-Canada in the Canadian oil industry, gave the federal government 25% ownership of every new Arctic and offshore well, and established price controls for consumers. The Liberal Party is not a favourite choice in Alberta because they started the NEP which redistributed Alberta’s wealth to the federal gov’t and Canadian consumers. When world oil prices dropped many American companies stopped producing Alberta and the economic boom in the province came to an abrupt end and thousands of people lost their jobs, businesses, and homes. People resented PM Trudeau’s Liberal gov’t.


What is the CWB?

27. The CWB is the Canadian What Boart a that was founded in 1935 at the request of western farmer to help market their wheat and stabilize prices. In 1943, a new law made it mandatory for western farmers to sell their what to the CWB. It only applies to prairie farmers. Many farmers want to sell their own grains for better prices than those the CWB negotiates, many think they benefit from the CWB’s monopoly and don’t want it to change and others think that the CWB is worthwhile, but that participation in its program should be voluntary. Critics say that the CWB is further evidence that the federal gov’t interferes unnecessarily in the West’s economy.