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Flashcards in Lesson 1 Deck (31):

What are the 6 historical thinking concepts?

1) Historical Significance (HS)
2) Evidence (E)
3)Continuity & Change (C+C)
4) Causes and Consequence (C-C)
5) Historical Perspective (HP)
6) Ethical Dimensions (ED)


Was Pre-Contact North America an empty land?

No, First Nations had been in North America for thousands of years before the first Europeans arrived.


What is an individuals worldview impacted by?

-where thye are born
-their families past
-their families history


What are the five things in the European worldview?

-requiring proof of belief, scientific. Suspicious of mystical
-identity comes from jobs and walth, compartmentalized society (live on your own/do things on your own)
-utilizing the environment for their own needs. Progress is important
-time is linear structured and future oriented. Months, years reinforced linear structure
-large scale authority systems. Authority given through role and bureaucracy


What are the six things in the Aboriginal worldview?

-spiritually oriented. System base don belief and mystical
-everything and everyone is related. Belief that people and objects and the environment are related. Identity comes from ones connectedness
-Aboriginal people are happy to fit in with what exists within the environment and what is happening now
-time is non-linear. Time is measured by cyclical events. Seasonsa re central to this concept
-feeling comfortable is measured by your relationships
-authority is based on age, cultural knowledge, and relationship with people. Can only have influenced on those that they are realted to, that is why so many bureaucratic systems failed with Aboriginal communities


What is a culture?

-A culture is a people's whole way of life. When we think about culture, the aspects that tend to come ot mind furst are thsoe that are on the surgace adn easy to recognize as unique such as clothing, food, language, songs, or dances. However, the majority of what constitutes culture goes a lot deeper than the surgace.
-the deeper aspects of culture include the stories ehich help define our values, beliefs, social organization, symbols
-culture includes matters as profound as spirituality and worldview
-includes all activities and beliefs practiced by a specific group of people that are systemeatically taught to subsequent generations


In an Aboriginal society, what was the most imoortant basic unit of decision-making, and what were the other units?

Most important: family
Other units: village, clan, trive, nation
These are different examples of governmental systems before contact


With Iroquois, what two councils was decision making done in? What age did men have to be and how was lineage determined?

one for civil matters, the other for war
the mother's line


With Iroquous, how many levels of council were there on a national level, and what were they?

-there were 3 levels of council
1) village council
2) council of the nation
3) confederacy or grand council


How many times a year did the Iroquous Grand Council meet? What sex were the members, and who selected them?

-at least once a year
-selected by women


Where the Plains Nations nomadic? Were villages larger in summer and smaller in winter? How did the Plains Nations make decisions?

-through a chief and a council of elders (usually unanimous consensus)


Who became the voices with the most authority when the smaller winter villages joined together in the summer? (Plains Nations)

the chiefs that were the msot respected


Were the Pacific Coast people settled or nomadic?



Was it the Pacific Coast or Inuit that had a complex social structure consisting of nobility, commoners, and slaves?

Pacific Coast


How would the Pacific Coast peoples decide on issues and when would they meet?

the leader of each villagewould meet during potlatch ceremonies and discuss issues of common interest


Were the Inuit settled or nomadic?



How were Inuit leaders selected?

according to the situatin, depending on skill as a hunter, generosity, oratory abiliy, or skill at reconciliation


What are the 3 main theories of Aboriginal origins in Canada?

1) Aboriginal Oral History- the people were placed uon the land by the Creator at the beginning of time
2) Scientific Theory (1960-1990)- North American Aboriginals came to the continent from Siveria via a land beidge that was a result of lower ocean levels during the last ice age which would mean Aboriginals "walked" from today's Russia to Alaska when the sea was down.
3) Scientific Theory (1990-present)- North American Aboriginals came to the continent via three different routes from three seperate locations
-Siverian Land bridge
-Pacific Over Seas Route
-Atlantic Over Seas Route


What are all origin series based up?

a combination of archeological and DNA research


What did First Nations loral history contain?

an account of each group's origins, history, spirituality, lessons of morality, and life skills


What are the five groups of First Nations in Saskatchewan?

1) Cree
2) Saulteaux
3) Dakota-Sioux
5) Dene
There is a sixth group which is the Metis Nation of Saskatchewan


What are the different Aboriginal areas that make up today's Canada prior to contact?

-plain first nations
-northwest coast


Who are the three big C's?

1) John Cabot (rediscovered North America after the Vikings; calimed the region for England)
2) Jacques Cartier (discovered and explored the St. Lawrence river; claimed the region for France)
3) Samuel de Champlain (the "Father of New Frace"; marked the shift from exploration to permanent settlement.


Why did Cabot try to get funding from England (2 reasons)?

1) Spain had already claimed the middle latitudes
2) If the world was a globe, the distances would be narrower, the farther north you went, England would thus be closer to Asia then Spain


Explain the phrase "intellectual discoverer of America". Who was it?

-John Cabot
-his reprts convinved Europeans that the lands were a new continent and that England had claim over that land


Who did Cartier take home?

Donnacona's two sons.


What happened to Donnacona?

Cartier kidnapped Donnacona and he died in France.


What kind of gold did Cartier find in France?

fool's gold


What was de Monts scared of in New France?

de Monts was scared of an attack from the Maliseet Indians who had been intentionally watching them


Where is Port Royal today?

On the inner shore of Nova Scotia near present day Annapolis Royal


Who was Donnacona and what was his response to Cartier?

He motioned to the land when Cartier put up the cross as if to say "this is our land." Donnacona was an Iroquois chief.