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Flashcards in 3.6 Deck (44):

What happened between Canada and Britain in terms of trade in the 1860s?

Canada lost preferential trade.


What happened between the USA and Canada's reciprocity agreement?

It expired


When did Macdonald pass a legislation that put protective tariffs on manufactured goods? What percent were these tariffs?

20-30 %


What did the tariffs protect?

The Canadian economy.


What was the role of Western Canada?

Resources! Get them and have them delivered to central Canada.


What was the role of Central Canada?

Factory production, manufacturing, financial centre of Canada; Corporate and banking institutions located there.


What was the role of the Maritimes?

Provide fish and agricultural products. Base for intrnation trade and defence.


Why did many large employers in the maritimes go out of business?

Because wooden ships became extince and many of their companies did not have the manufacturing capacity to build ocean liners


Prairie farmers had to____expensive and____cheap.



What was the problem with tariffs for prairie farmer?

Central Canada manufactured products, like stoves, and put tarrifs on them to encourage Canadians to buy Canadian. However, there were not protective tariffs on products like grain and barley and so farmers had to compete on their own agains the world market which drastically reducted the amount they could sel the grain for.


What was the population of the west by 1891?

Only 250 000


What are the three points of Western Alienation?

1) Western farmers paid extremely high freight rates to the CPR
2) Unfair protective tariffs
3) little political clout (Ontario had the most political seats because of population)


What question dominated federal politics and threatened to rip apart Canada?

The Manitoba Schools Question


What was the Manitoba Schools Act? Why was it a problem?

It cut money for the roman catholic schools and made all schools english speaking. The Manitoba Act of 1870 had the French speakers promised sperate schools.


What was Laurier's solution to the Manitoba Schools Act in 1896?

He said that they had to provide 30 minutes of religious instruction everyday and a french teacher would have to be provided in every school with more than 10 french students.


Why was Laurier's reign knows as Sunny Ways?

Because he had a knack for making compromise to resolve contentious issues.


Was Canada as industralized as other countries?



What provided increased employement across the country?

Large minds became more commpnplace and provided increased employment.


What did Canada build more of that went choo choo?



What were some of the new cultural groups that were in Canada?

Russians, Ukraine, United States and Britain, to name a few.


What did farmers form cooperatives for?

help buy machinery or tried to expand and purchase more land


What did more farmers begin to ask for in the early 20th century?

more support from the government in the way of more railway tracks and other way of supports in which farmers formed the Canadian Council of Agriculture.


What were Canada East and Canada West opinions on free trade with US? Who did Laurier support?

Canada East: thought that Canadians would no longer buy Canadian so didn't want it.
Canada West: wanted it becasue it would bring down the price of goods in the West.
Laurier supported the West and lost the election because of it.


Who won the 1911 election?

Robert Borden because he didn't support free trade?


Who introducted Prohibition?

The Social Gospel group that was attatched to the Methodist Church. They were worried about the effects of alcohol on new families in Canada.


When was prohibition eneacted in some parts of Canada?

Early 1900s


What was suffrage?

Women's right to vote


Why did the movement gain significant leverage in the lead up to WWI?

women were sacrificing just like men but had limited rights


Between____all provinces other than Quebec women were granted the right ot vote.



What was the Pearson case?

Women were aloud to vote but could not sit in the Senate as they where still not persons.


Who was the first woman to hold a seat inthe Senate?

Cairine Wilson


What was it like working in the 1920s?

It was tough to find work and the work you did find had bad pay. There was drought conditions on the prairies and a significant drop in wheat prices.


What is the prairie economy usually characterized by?

A boom bust cycle


What was the goal of the unions that were introduced by the labour movement into the work force?

better wages
a five day work week
receive safe working conditions


Why do you think the manitoba Schools question was so important to French Canadians?

Because there is a history in Canada of the French being discriminated against. They were worried about their French culture being ocmpletely disregarded once again.


What impact did tariffs have on Western Canada?

Farmers in the west were far away from manufacturing in central Canada. When they needed ot export farm machinery, they had to either pay high duties on imported American machinery or pay for high priced equipment from central Canada. Also, Canadians exporting agricultural products or other natural resources did not have tariff protection so they had to add teh high cost of shipping to their product prices and had trouble competing in international markets.


Why might western Canadian farmers have begun to feel alienated from the established political parties?

because neither political party really could give them what they wanted. They had to form their own cooperatives to get fair treatment. The majority was in central Canada and so the farmers knew that they didn't really stand a chance because of rep by pop.


Was the national policy successful in uniting Canada?

The NP was very successful in uniting Canada/ John A view is that the NP will join the provinces in trade.


Why did trade unions begin in Canada?t

becaue working conditions in factories were often unhealthy and unsafe so workers formed and joined unions to advance their mutual interests.


Why was the Winnipeg General Strike historically significant? What kind of affect did it have on the labour movement?

because all city services were disprupted including mail, telephone, streetcars, and even police and fire departments. Two men were killed in the riot and others injured by the spsecial police brought in by the government. It also strengthened the fear of communism in Canada becuaseit was like the revolution that occured i Russia. It had a profound effect on the labour movement becuase more and more workers became politically radical, but some workers were domoralized and retreated from labour momvement.


What various methods did Canadians use to try cause reform in the early twentieth century? What reform where they looking for and why?

The methods were: humanitarian organizations to improve working conditions for children, poor, elderly, anad widowed or sick women, religions missions provided food and shelter to the homeless, a trend in christian churches, known Social Gosepel , worked to initiate improvements in areas such as health care, child labour, education, housing, urban reform, women's rights, social justive, and prohibition. They were looking for reform in working conditions and social change because the cities were growing rapidly and could not handle the rapid population increases they were experiencing. There was overcrowding, disease, poor living conditions, and few services in place. NO government policies assisted Canadians with health or unemployment.


How did WWI affect the suffrage movement?

Before WWI, only one in every six workers in Canada was a women, but after WWI women took over all the jobs ment fighting. Women's services and sacrifices during the war became a key argument in favour of their receivign the right to vote. They proved that women could do everything that men could do and that they wre indedd, persons.


What were some of the ways government s responded to changes in the lives of Canadians and demands for reforms?

Giving women the right to vote, granting the provinces more jurisdiction, allowing trade unions, compromising on situations like the Manitoba Schools Act, adn by creating pollicies nd laws in areas of education, health, policing, public services, labour legislation, and social security (splitting these duties between federal and provincial governments).


Why did the power shift from the provincial government back to the federal government during WWI? Why did it shift back after the war was over?

Because the nations was in state of emergency. It would be beneficial for the country to have all laws and policies being governed by one group of people to ensure the countries safety. It owul dbe beneficial to have as few conflicting opinions as possible in times of war. I believe that it shifed back after the war because the federal government probably didn't want to assume all of the responsibility indefinitely, and also becuase it was the best way to appease the French and English because the French wanted to have control over their own affairs in order to retain their cultural identity and customs, and ultimately giving the provinces control would prevent rebellion and uprising. It was a way to keep everyone happy.