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Flashcards in Neuro Deck (51)
1

"Pseudopalisades," - central necrosis with surrounding cells on brain Bx, crosses the corpus callosum, vascular proliferation

GBM
- #1 brain tumor
- butterfly glioma = astrocytes

2

Solid tumor with small blue cells, Homer-wright rossettes (halo of cells surrounding central ball), gait instablity, limb ataxia

Medulloblastoma
- VERMIS
- Primitive neuroectodermal tumors
- #2 in kids

3

Rosenthal fibers, spindle cells w/ hair-like glial processes (corkscrew fibers), ataxia, vision loss

Pilocytic astrocytoma
- #1 kids
- Cerebellum, brainstem, hypothalamic, optic

4

Pseudorosettes (spoke-wheel cells around a blood vessel), rod shaped blepharoplasts, GFAP+, hydrocephalus

Ependymoma
- Roof of 4th
- #3 kids

5

Spindle-shaped cell with concentric whorls, laminated calcifications, tumor on surface of brain

Meningioma
- #2 adults
- Psammoma bodies

6

Blue cells, neutrophilic neuritic proceses that stain + for S-100, chromogranin, synaptophysin

Neuroblastoma

7

Absent cerebellar vermis, global ventricle enlargement, enlargement of posterior fossa

Dandy-Walker

8

Cerebellar tonsils through foramen magnum, blockage of aqueduct of sylvius, hydrocephalus, apnea, syringomyelia

Arnold-Chiari

9

Calcifications of white matter in frontal lobes, cells with central nucleus and clear cytoplasm, GFAP +

Oligodendrioglioma
- "chicken wire or fried-egg" appearance

10

Hemangioblastomas in retina, cerebellum, SC + dermatologic angiomas + RCC, pheo, kidney cysts

Von Hippel-Lindau
- AD
- VHL gene on chr3 --> activates angiogenic factors

11

Pigmented nodules in iris, optic nerve gliomas, cafe au lait spots

NF-1 (Von Recklinghausen)

12

Tinnitis in both ears, vertigo, HA, juvenile cataracts, cafe au lait spots

NF-2

13

Seizures, tram-tracking skull x-ray, facial angioma

Sturge-Weber

14

Cortical, subependymal hamartomas, acne on face, renal and liver failure, hypopigmented areas, leather-like patch on lower back

Tuberous sclerosis
- Kidney, liver, pancreatic cysts
- cardiac rhabdo, adenoma secaceum, CNS hammartomas

15

Kid w/ HA, bitemporal hemianopsia, polyuria, polydipsia, fatigue, weight gain

Craniopharyngioma
- Part solid (calcified)
- Part cystic (cholesterol "machine oil")
- Keratin pearls
- Rathke's pouch

16

Posterior communicating artery rupture

CN III down and out

17

AICA rupture

IL facial paralysis, pain and temp, tinnitus

18

PICA

CL Pain and temp body
IL Pain and temp face

19

Lesion to left motor cortex tract to facial muscles - which muscle is paralyzed?

Right orbicular oris (mouth/smiling muscle)
- occipitofrontalis get B/L innervation

20

Damage to right MLF, what happens when looking to the left?

Fixed R eye, nystagmus in left
- nystagmus in ABducting eye = signal to CN III is lost

21

Inc Hct, foamy cells with inc vascularity, cerebellar mass in an adult

Hemangioblastoma

22

Paralysis in left leg, atrophy, areflexia

Polio
- loss of anterior horn cells
- Asymmetrical (vs.GBS)
- PMNs and lymphocytes in CSF
- Fecal-oral = WATER

23

Paralysis in lower limbs, arms, hyperreflexia, no sensory loss

ALS
- anterior horn and CST --> UMN (vs. polio and GBS)

24

Paralysis in both legs, elevated protein in CSF with normal cells, absent DTRs

GBS
- campylobacter
- Albuminocytologic dissociation
- SYMMETRICAL (vs. polio)

25

Floppy baby, areflexia, muscle fibrillations and inc CK from birth

Spinal muscular atrophy
- survival motor neuron (SMN) mutation
- atrophy of LMN anterior horn cells

26

Consciousness intact, abnormal memory, auditory, visual or sensory hallucinations or "out-of-body" feeling

Simple Partial
- temporal lobe

27

LOC, repetitive movements of hands, lip smacking, chewing

Complex Partial

28

Begin as SPS or CPS --> stiffness and clonic jerking

Secondarily generalized tonic-clonic

29

Alternating stiffness and jerking movements

Tonic-conic
- Tx = Phenytoin or carbamazepine

30

Behavioral changes, dementia, frontotemoral atrophy, tau protein

Pick Disease

31

Problems paying attention, visual hallucinations, bradykinesia, tremor, alpha-synuclein inclusions

Lewy body dementia

32

Loss of caudate, NMDA/GABA receptors

Huntington

33

Kyphoscoliosis, pes cavus, ataxia, dec vibratory sense, CHF, DM

Freidrich ataxia
- GAA
- hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

34

Herniation --> cardiopulmonary arrest

Tonsilar

35

Herniation --> dilated, unreactive pupil, CL hemianopsia, IL hemiparesis, compresses PCA

Uncal - supratentorial

36

Herniation compresses ACA

Subflacine

37

Herniation --> tear basilar --> Duret hemorrhage and hyperventilation, Cheyne-Stoke breathing

Central

38

Fluent speech w/ impaired comprehension

Wernicke = world salad
- superior temporal

39

Fluent speech, intact comprehension, can't repeat

Arcuate fasiculus - conduction aphasia

40

IL UMN, touch loss, CL pain and temp

Brown-sequard

41

BL pain and temp over back and shoulders, no DTRs

Syringomyelia
- assoc w/ Arnold-chiari

42

BL pain and temp a few levels below, BL flaccid paralysis

Central cord syndrome - anterior white commissure

43

Paresthesias a year prior, new onset blurred vision in one eye, scanning speech, intention tremor, bladder incontinence, worse w/ hot showers

MS
- Periventicular white matter
- Tx - beta-interferon

44

Oligoclonal bands

MS

45

Dec Ach in Basal nucleus of Meynert

Alzheimer
- Dec choline acetyltransferase

46

Alzheimer tx

Donepezil (cholinesterase inhibitor)
Memantine (NMDA antagonist)

47

Startle myoclonus, spike-wave on EEG

CJD

48

Free nerve endings

Pain and temp

49

Pacinian

Pressure
Vibration
- deep skin, joints, ligaments

50

Positional delayed horizontal nystagmus toward left eye

LEFT is affected - peripheral vertigo

51

Central vertigo

D/T stroke, tumors, MS w/ sx of diplopia, slurred speech, focal weakness + IMMEDIATE nystagmus that may CHANGE DIRECTION