Flashcards in Neuro 1 Deck (74)
Cranial nerve(s) arising from the spinal cord?
CN XI [accessory nucleus is found at C1 - C4 spinal cord levels]
Cranial nerve(s) arising from the medulla oblongata?
CN IX, X, XII
Cranial nerve(s) arising from the pontomedullary junction?
CN VI, VII, VIII
Cranial nerve(s) arising from the pontocerebellar angle?
CN VII and VIII
Cranial nerve(s) arising from the pons?
CN V, VII
Cranial nerve(s) arising from the midbrain?
CN III, IV
Cranial nerve(s) arising from the diencephalon?
Cranial nerve(s) arising from the telencephalon?
Signs of Foster Kennedy syndrome?
(olfactory groove meningioma), IL anosmia, IL optic atrophy, CL papilledema
Cranial nerve sensory ganglia?
TGIS9+10: Trigeminal (CN V), Geniculate (CN VII), Inferior and Superior ganglia (of CN IX, X)
Cranial nerve motor (i.e. parasympathetic) ganglia?
COPS: Ciliary (CN III), Otic (CN IX), Pterygopalatine (CN VII), Submandibular (CN VII) and Intramural (CN X)
Nerves traversing the jugular foramen?
CN IX, X, XI
Nerves traversing the supraorbital fissure?
CN III, IV, V1 [ophthalmic] and VI
Nerves traversing the cavernous sinus?
CN III, IV, VI, V1 [ophthalmic] and V2 [maxillary] + internal carotid plexus [sympathetic]
Nerve traversing the foramen rotundum?
CN V2 [maxillary]
Nerve traversing the foramen ovale?
CN V3 [mandibular]
Nerves traversing the foramen magnum?
CN XI + sympathetic plexus on vertebral artery
Nerves traversing the internal auditory meatus?
CN VII, VIII
Nerve traversing the stylomastoid foramen?
Brainstem Nuclei for CN III?
Brainstem Nucleus for CN IV?
What CN decussates before exiting the brainstem?
Brainstem Nuclei for CN V?
chief sensory nucleus, mesencephalic, spinal trigeminal, trigeminal motor nucleus
Brainstem Nucleus for CN VI?
Brainstem Nuclei for CN VII?
facial, superior salivatory, spinal trigeminal, solitary
Brainstem Nuclei for CN IX?
nucleus ambiguous, inferior salivatory, spinal trigeminal, solitary
Brainstem Nuclei for CN X?
nucleus ambiguous, dorsal vagal, spinal trigeminal, solitary
Nucleus for CN XI?
accessory nucleus (cervical spinal cord)
Brainstem Nucleus for CN XII?
Muscles innervated by CN III?
levator palpebrae, superior rectus, medial rectus, inferior oblique, inferior rectus, ciliary muscle, constrictor pupillae
Three components of the near triad?
3 by III; convergance of eyes, pupillary constriction, contraction of ciliary muscle
Muscle innervated by CN IV?
Action of muscle innervated by CN IV?
intorsion, abduction and depression [turns pupil down and out]
Action to test muscle innervated by CN IV?
adduct and depress [in and then down]
Muscle innervated by CN VI?
Signs of compressive injury to CN III?
dilated pupil with normal eye movements
Signs of diabetic infarct in CN III?
oculomotor palsy with normal pupil
Sign of injury to CN IV?
diplopia worse when walking down stairs; improves with head tilt to opposite side
Sign of injury to CN VI?
diplopia improves with head turn towards paralyzed muscle
Location of horizontal gaze center?
Location of vertical gaze center?
Signs of Argyll-Robertson pupil?
pupil accomadates but doesn't react [to light]; tertiary syphillis, aka. "prostitutes pupil"
Signs of internuclear opthalmoplegia?
Injury to MLF [demyelination in MS] - on leftward gaze: right eye does not adduct (convergance intact)
Structures injured in "one-and-a-half" syndrome?
abducens nucleus and both MLF
Signs of injury to the right abducens nerve?
IL CN VI palsy: cannot abduct eye
Sign of injury to right abducens nucleus?
on rightward gaze: R eye does not abduct, L eye does not adduct
Eye movement deficits in right medial pontine syndrome?
on rightward gaze: R eye does not abduct, L eye does not adduct + on leftward gaze R eye does not adduct
Three causes of ptosis?
CN III palsy, Horner syndrome, myasthenia gravis
Muscles innervated by CN V?
temporalis, masseter, medial and lateral pterygoid, ant digastric, tensor tympani, tensor veli palatinin, mylohyoid
Motor signs with CN V injury?
asymmetric jaw closing (deviates to good side), atrophy of temporalis, masseter
Muscles innervated by CN VII?
muscles of facial expression, post digastic, stylohyoid, stapedius
Motor signs with CN VII injury?
Bell's palsy: complete facial paralysis - can't smile or wrinkle forehead
Muscle innervated by CN IX?
Motor signs with CN IX injury?
Skeleteal muscles innervated by CN X?
levator veli palatini, palatoglossus, pharyngeal, laryngeal + esophageal
Motor signs with CN X injury?
dysphagia, hoarsness, sagging palate, uvula deviates to opposite side
Muscles innervated by CN XI?
Motor signs with injury to CN XI?
weakness shrugging shoulder, cannot abduct humerus beyond 90, weakness turning head to opposite side
Muscles innervated by CN XII?
genioglossus, hyoglossus, styloglossus, instrinsic tongue muscles
Motor signs with CN XII injury?
tongue deviates to side of lesion on protrusion, atrophy of tongue muscles [compare to UMN injury]
Skin innervated by CN V?
face [V1 - forehead, upper eyelid + nose; V2 - cheek, lower eyelid, upper lip; V3 - jaw, lower lip]
Skin innervated by CN VII, IX and X?
small area around ear
What is Ramsay Hunt syndrome?
herpes infection in the geniculate ganglion = blisters on pinna
Signs of Ramsay Hunt syndrome?
IL facial paralysis, hyperacusis, loss of taste, herpes vesicles on external ear, canal
Viscera innervated by CN III?
sphincter pupillar, ciliary muscle
Viscera innervated by CN VII?
mucosa of nasal cavity, oral cavity, lacrimal, submandibular, sublingual glands
Viscera innervated by CN IX?
parotid gland, mucosa of middle ear, mucosa of oropharynx
Viscera innervated by CN X?
mucosa of larynx, pharynx, all viscera of foregut and midgut
CN/ganglia/nucleus for taste at the anterior 2/3s of tongue?
General sensory innervation to anterior 2/3 of tongue?
CN/ganglia/nucleus for taste at the posterior 1/3 of the tongue?
CN IX/inferior ganglion of IX/solitary
Signs of CN VII injury at the internal auditory meatus?
IL complete facial paralysis, dry eye, dry mouth, hyperacusis, decreased taste on ant 2/3 of tongue [tinnitus/hearing loss if CN VIII affected]
Signs of CN VIII injury in facial canal?
IL complete facial paralysis; decreased taste on ant 2/3 of tongue