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Flashcards in Path 2 Deck (34)
1

Coagulative necrosis

ischemic infarct

Usually wedge-shaped, pale or red

2

Liquifactive necrosis

Enzymes lyse cells & proteins

1. Brain - microglia
2. Abscess - neutrophils
3. Pancreatitis - enzymes - parenchyma

3

Dry gangrene

Ischemia of lower limb - Diabetics

4

Wet gangrene

Superimposed infection, then liqufactive necrosis

5

Caseous necrosis

Soft, friable tissue w/ cottage cheese appearance

FUNGAL/TB - granulomatous inflammation

Coagulative + liquifactive

6

Fat necrosis

Chalk-white d/t Ca

1. Breast trauma
2. PERI-pancreatic fat

7

Saponification

Fat + calcium

8

Dystrophic calcification

Necrotic tissue becomes nidus for calcification (saponification)

Psamomma bodies

NORMAL serum Ca, Phos

9

Metastatic calcification

HIGH serum Ca, Phos --> calcium deposition in normal tissues
- hyperparathyroidism

10

Fibrinoid necrosis

Blood vessel wall
Fibrin leaks into wall --> BRIGHT PINK wall

1. Malignant HTN
2. Vasculitis
3. Pre-eclampsia - 30 y/o woman

11

Apoptosis

Caspases --> proteases & endonucleases --> apoptotic bodies --> cleaned by MO

1. Lack of BCL-2 --> cytochrome C leaks out
2. FAS-L --> CD95 on T-cells or TNF-alpha
3. CD8+

12

Underlying mechanism of damage in Wilson disease and Hemochromatosis

Hydroxyl free radical generation

13

CCl4

Dry cleaning
P450 --> CCl3 --> swelling --> dec Apos --> FATTY CHANGE

14

Continued inc in cardiac enzymes after opening of vessel

Reperfusion injury

15

Amyloidosis

Misfolded protein deposition --> tissue damage
- often around BVs

1. B-pleated sheet
2. Congo-red stain + apple-green birefringence

16

Primary Systemic amyloidosis

AL Amyloid - light chain

Blood dyscraisias - MM

17

Secondary Systemic amyloidosis

AA amyloid - from SAA (acute phase reactant)

Chronic inflammation
- auto-immune, crohn's, UC, RA
- Malignancy
- Familial mediterranean fever

18

Familial Mediterranean fever

AR
Dysfxn of NEUTROPHILS

Mimics appendicitis, MI, arthritis

19

Findings of systemic amyloidosis

***Kidney is most commonly involved organ***

1. Nephrotic syndrome
2. Restrictive cardiomyopathy
3. Tongue enlargement, malabs, HSM

Dx = Bx
Tx = transplant

20

Senile amyloid

Serum transthyretin

Elderly, No sx, heart

21

Familial amyloid cardiomyopathy

MUTATED serum transthyretin

Restrictive cardiomyopathy
5% A.A.s

22

Type II DM Amyloid

Amylin (from insulin) --> islets

23

Alzheimer amyloid

A-Beta amyloid from beta amyloid precursor protein
Chr21 - Down syndrome develop early alzheimers

24

Dialysis amyloid

Beta-2 micoglobulin
Joints

25

Medullary carcinoma of the thyroid amyloid

Calcitonin deposits in tumor - 'tumor cells in an amyloid backgrouns'

26

Mechanism of metaplasia

Reprogramming of stem cells
It is reversible

27

Only dysplasia w/o inc risk of cancer

Apocrine metaplasia of breast

28

Keratomalacia

Vit A deficiency --> metaplasia/thickening of conjunctiva

29

Myostitis ossificans

Mesenchymal metaplasia - muscle --> bone after trauma

30

Cause of Budd-Chiari

Polycythemia vera

31

Causes of hypoxemia

1. High altitude
2. Hypovent
3. diffusion defect/fibrosis
4. V/Q mmismatch

32

Methemoglobinemia

Fe2 oxidized to Fe3
SaO2 DEC
Sulfas, nitrates, newborns
Cyanosis w/ CHOCOLATE colored blood

Tx = methylene blue

33

Reversible cell injury

Cellular swelling
- blebs, dec protein syn, no microvilli

34

Irreversible cell injury

Membrane damage
- cytosolic contents, Ca into cell, cyto c, lysosomal enzymes