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Flashcards in Pharm 15 Deck (32)
2

Limiting adverse effect of ganglion blockade that patients usually are unable to tolerate

Severe hypertension

3

Reversal of blockade by neuromuscular blockers

Cholinesterase inhibitors

4

Tubocurarine is the prototype, pancuronium, atracurium, vecuronium are newer short acting agent, produce competitive block at end plate nicotinic receptor, causing flaccid paralysis

Nondepolarizing Neuromuscular Blockers

5

Only member of depolarizing neuromuscular blocker, causes fasciculation during induction and muscle pain after use

Succinylcholine

6

Chemical antagonists that bind to the inhibitor of ACh Estrace and displace the enzyme (if aging has not occurred)

Cholinesterase Regenerators

7

Used to treat patients exposed to insecticides such as parathion

Pralidoxime

8

Phenylisopropylamines that are used legitimately and abused for narcolepsy, attention deficit disorder, and weight reduction

Amphetamines

9

Alpha agonist used to produce mydriasis and reduce conjunctival itching and congestion caused by irritation or allergy, it does not cause cycloplegia

Phenylephrine

10

Epinephrine and dipivefrin are used for

Glaucoma

11

Newer alpha 2 agonist (apraclonidine and brimonidine) treat glaucoma

Reduce aqueous synthesis

12

Short acting Beta 2 agonists that is drug of choice in treatment of acute asthma but not recommended for prophylaxis

Albuterol

13

Longer acting Beta 2 agonists is recommended for prophylaxis of asthma

Salmeterol

14

These agents increase blood flow and may be beneficial in treatment of acute heart failure and some types of shock

Beta1 agonists

15

Shock due to septicemia or myocardial infarction is made worse by

Increasing afterload and tissue perfusion declines

16

Often mixed with local anesthetic to

Reduce the loss from area of injection

17

Chronic orthostatic hypotension can be treated with

Midodrine

18

Beta 2 agonist used to suppress premature labor, but cardiac stimulatory effects may be hazardous to mother and fetus

Terbutaline

19

Long acting sympathomimetic, sometimes used to improve urinary continence in children and elderly with enuresis

Ephedrine

20

Beta 1 agonist toxicity

Sinus tachycardia and serious arrhythmias

21

Beta 2 agonist toxicity

Skeletal muscle tremor

22

The selective agents loose their selectivity at

high doses

23

Nonselective alpha-blocking drug, long acting and irreversible, and used to treat pheochromocytoma. Blocks 5-HT, so occasionaly used for carcinoid tumor. Blocks H1 and used in mastocytosis

Phenoxybenzamine

24

Nonselective alpha-blocking drug, short acting and reversible, used for rebound HTN from rapid clonidine withdrawal, and Raynaud's phenomena

Phentolamine

25

Selective Alpha 2 blocker used for impotence (controversial effectiveness)

Yohimbine

26

Combined alpha and beta blocking agents that may have application in treatment of CHF

Labetalol and carvedilol

27

Beta blockers partial agonist activity (intrinsic sympathomimetic activity) cause some bronchodilation and may have an advantage in treating patients with asthma

Pindolol and acebutolol

28

This parenteral beta blocker is a short acting

Esmolol

29

This beta blocker is the longest acting

Nadolol

30

These beta blockers are less lipid soluble

Acebutolol and atenolol

31

This beta blocker is highly lipid soluble and may account for side effects such as nightmares

Propranolol

32

Clinical uses of these agents include treatment of HTN, angina, arrhythmias, and chronic CHF

Beta blockers

33

Toxicity of these agents include bradycardia, AV blockade, exacerbation of acute CHF, signs of hypoglycemia may be masked (tachycardia, tremor, and anxiety)

Beta blockers