Classic Lab Findings Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Classic Lab Findings Deck (85)
1

Anticentromere antibodies

Scleroderma (CREST)

2

Antidesmoglein (epithelial antibodies)

Pemphigus vulgaris (blistering)

3

Anti-glomerular basement membrane antibodies

Goodpasture's syndrome (glomerulonephritis and hemoptysis)

4

Antihistone antibodies

Drug-induced SLE

5

Anti-IgG antibodies

Rheumatoid arthritis (systemic inflammation, joint pannus, boutonniere deformity)

6

Antimitochondrial antibodies (AMAs)

Primary biliary cirrhosis (female, cholestasis, portal hypertension)

7

Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody

ANCAs (c-ANCA = Wegner's, p-ANCA = microscopic polyangiitis, Churg-Strauss syndrome)

8

Antinuclear antibodies (ANA: anti-Smith and anti-dsDNA)

SLE (type III hypersensitivity)

9

Antiplatelet antibodies

ITP

10

Anti-topoisomerase antibodies

diffuse systemic scleroderma

11

Anti-transglutaminase/anti-gliadin/anti-endomysial antibodies

Celiac disease (diarrhea, distention, weight loss)

12

Apple core lesion on abdominal x-ray

colorectal cancer (usually left-sided)

13

Azurophilic granular needles in leukemic blasts

Auer rods (AML especially M3)

14

Bacitracin response

Sensitive = S. pyogenes (Group A); Resistant = S. agalactiae (Group B)

15

Bamboo spine on X-ray

Ankylosing spondylitis (chronic inflammatory arthritis: HLA-B27)

16

Basophilic nuclear remnants in RBCs

Howell-Jolly bodies (due to splenectomy or nonfunctional spleen)

17

Basophilic stippling of RBCs

Lead poisoning or sideroblastic anemia

18

Bloody tap on LP

Subarachnoid hemorrhage

19

Boot-shaped heart on X-ray

Tetralogy of Fallot, RVH

20

Branching gram-positive rods with sulfur granules

Actinomyces israelii

21

Bronchogenic apical lung tumor

Pancoast tumor (can compress the sympathetic ganglion and cause Horner's syndrome)

22

Brown tumor of bone

Hemorrhage (hemosiderin) causes brown color of osteolytic cysts due to hyperparathyroidism and Osteitis fibrosa cystica

23

Cardiomegaly with apical atrophy

Chagas' disease (trypanosoma cruzi)

24

Cellular crescents on Bowmann's capsule

Rapidly progressive crescentic glomerulonephritis

25

Chocolate cyst of ovary

Endometriosis (frequently involves both ovaries)

26

Circular grouping of dark tumor cells, surrounding pale neurofibrils

Homer wright rosettes (Neuroblastoma, medulloblastoma, retinoblastoma)

27

Colonies of mucoid Pseudomonas in lung

CF (AR mutation in CFTR gene results in fat-soluble vitamin deficiency and mucous plugs)

28

Decreased alpha-fetoprotein in amniotic fluid/maternal serum

Down syndrome or other chromosomal abnormality

29

Degeneration of dorasl column nerves

Tabes dorsalis (tertiary syphilis)

30

Depigmentation of neurons in substantia nigra

Parkinson's disease (basal ganglia disorder: rigidity, resting tremor, bradykinesia)

31

Desquamated epithelium casts in sputum

Curschmann's spirals (bronchial asthma, can result in whorled mucous plugs)

32

Disarrrayed granulosa cells in eosinophhilic fluid

Call-Exner bodies (granulosa-theca cell tumor of the ovary)

33

Enlarged cells with intranuclear inclusion bodies

Owl's-eye appearance of CMV

34

Enlarged thyroid cells with ground-glass nuclei

Orphan Annie eye nuclei of papilary carcinoma of the thyroid

35

Dysplastic squamous cervical cells with nuclear enlargement and hyperchromasia

Koilocytes (HPV - predisposes to cervical cancer)

36

Eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusion in liver cell

Mallory bodies (alcoholic liver disease)

37

Eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusion in nnerve cell

Lewy body (Parkinson's disease)

38

Eosinophilic globule in liver

Councilman body (toxic or viral hepatitis, often yellow fever)

39

Eosinophilic inclusion bodies in cytoplasm of hippocampal nerve cells

Rabies virus (Lyssavirus)

40

Extracellular amyloid deposition in gray matter of brain

Senile plaques (Alzheimer's disease)

41

Giant B cells with bilobed nuclei with prominent inclusions ("owl's eyes")

Reed-Sternberg cells (hodgkin's lymphoma

42

Glomarulus-like structure surrounding vessels in germ cells

Sschiller-Duval bodies (yolk sac tumor)

43

Hair-on-end' (crew-cut0 appearance on x-ray B-thalassemia, sickle cell anemia (marrow expansion)
hCG elevated Choriocarcinoma, hydatidiform mole (with and without embryo)
Heart nodules (Granulomatous) Aschoff bodies (rheumatic fever)
Heterophile antibodies Infectious mononucleosis (EBV)
Hexagonal, double-pointed needle-like crystals in bronchial secretions Bronchial asthma (Charcot-Leyden crystals: eosinophilic granules)
High level of d-dimers DVT, pulmonary embolism, DIC
Hilar lymphadenopathy, peripheral granulomatous lesion in middle of lower lung lobes (can calcify) Ghon complex from primary tuberculosis
Honeycomb lung on x-ray interstitial fibrosis
Hypersegmented neutrophils megaloblastic anemia (B12 deficiency or folate deficiency)
Hypochromic, microcytic anemia iron deficiency anemia, lead poisoning, thalassemia (HbF sometimes present)
Increased alpha-fetoprotein in amniotic fluid/maternal serum Dating error, anencephaly, spina bifida (neural tube defects)
Increased uric acid levels Gout, Lesch-Nyhan syndrome, tumor lysis syndrome, loop and thiazide diuretics
Intranuclear eosinophilic droplet-like bodies Cowdry type A bodies (HSV or CMV)
Iron-containing nodules in alveolar septum Ferruginous bodie (asbestose: increases chance of developing mesothelioma)
Large lysosomal vesicles in phagocytes, immunodeficiency Chediak-Higashi disease (congenital failure of phagolysosome formation)
Lead pipe" appearance of colon on x-ray

Ulcerative colitis (loss of haustra)

44

Linear appearance of colon on x-ray

Goodpasture's syndrome

45

Low serum ceruloplasmin

Wilson's disease (hepatolenticular degeneration)

46

Lumpy-bumpy appearance of glomeruli on immunoflourescence

poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (immune complex deposition of IgG and C3b)

47

Lytic (hole-punched) bone lesions on x-ray

Multiple myeloma

48

Mammary gland ("blue-domed") cyse

Fibrocystic change of the breast

49

Monoclonal antibody spike (4)

Multiple myeloma (igA or IgG), Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS - normal with aging), Waldenstrom's (IgM) macroglobulinemia, primary amyloidosis

50

Monoclonal globulin protein in blood/urine

Bence Jones proteins (multiple myeloma (kappa or lambda Ig light chains in urine), or Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia (IgM)

51

Mucin-filled cell with peripheral nucleus

Signet ring (gastric carcinoma)

52

Narrowing of bowel lumen on barium radiograph

String sign (Crohn's)

53

Needle-shaped negatively birefringent crystals

Gout (monosodium urate crystals)

54

Nodular hyaline deposits in glomeruli

Kimmelsetiel-Wilson nodules (DM)

55

Novobiocin response

sensitive = Staph epidermidis; resistant = Staph saprophyticus

56

Nutmeg liver

Chronic passive congestion of liver from RVF

57

Onion skin periosteal reaction

Ewing's sarcoma (malignant round cell tumor)

58

Optochin response

Sensitive = S. pneumoniae, resistant = Viridians streptococcus

59

Periostum raised from bone, creating triangluar area

Codman's triangle on x-ray (osteosarcoma, Ewing's sarcoma or pyogenic osteomyelitis)

60

Podocyte fusion on EM

Minimal change disease

61

Polished, "ivory-like" appearance of bone at cartilage erosion

Eburnation (osteoarthritis resulting in bony sclerosis)

62

Protein aggregations in neurons from hyperphosphorylation of protein tau

Neurofibrillary tangles in Alzheimers or CJD)

63

Psdudopalisading tumor cells on brain biopsy

Glioblastoma multiforme

64

RBC cast in urine

Acute glomerulonephritis

65

Rectangular, crystal-like cytoplasmic inclusions in Leydig cells

Reinke crystals (Leydig cell tumor)

66

Renal epithelial casts in urine

Acute toxic/viral nephrosis

67

Rhomboid crystals, positively birefringent

Pseudogout (calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate)

68

Rib notching

Coarctation of the aorta

69

Ring-enhancing lesions in Aids

Toxoplasma gondii

70

Sheets of mdium-sized lymphoid cells ("starry sky" appearance)

Burkitt's lymphoma (t[8;14] c-myc activation associated with EBV)

71

Silver-staining spherical aggregation of tau proteins in neurons

Pick bodies (Pick's disease: progressive dementia with changes in personality)

72

Soap bubble in femur or tibia on X-ray

giant cell tumor of the bone (generally benign)

73

Spikes on basement membrane, dome-like subepithelial deposits

Membranous glomerulonehritis (may progress to nephrotic syndrome)

74

Stacks of RBCs

Rouleaux formation (high ESR, multiple myeloma)

75

Stippled vaginal epithelial cells

clue cells - Gardnerella vaginitis

76

Tennis-racket shaped cytoplasmic organelles (EM) in langerhans cells

Birbeck granule (histiocytosis X; eosinophilic granuloma)

77

Thrombi made of white/red layers

Lines of Zahn (arterial thrombus, layers of platelets/RBCs)

78

Thumb sign on lateral x-ray

Epiglottitis of H. influenzae

79

Thyroid=like appearance of kidney

Chronic bacterial pyelonephritis

80

Tram-track appearance on LM

membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis

81

Triglyceride accumulation in liver cell vacuoles

fatty liver disaease (alcoholic or metabolic syndrome)

82

WBCs that look smudged

CLL

83

Wire loop glomerular appearance on LM

lupus nephropathy

84

Yellow CSF

Xanthochromia (previous subarachnoid hemorrhage)

85

Anti smooth-muscle antibody

autoimmune hepatitis