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Great rapprochement (end of the 19th century)

-after the decades of occasionally twisting the lions tail American diplomats began to cultivate close cordial relationship with Great Britain
-relationship would intensify further during WWI


Big sister policy (1880s)

-A foreign-policy a Secretary of State James G Blaine aimed a rallying Latin American nations behind American leadership and opening Latin American market to Yankee traders
-policy bore fruit in 1889 with Blaine presided over the first international conference of American states


Social gospel

-Christian intellectual movement that was most prominent in the early 20th century United States and Canada
-The movement applied Christian ethics to social problems, especially issues of social justice such as economic inequality, poverty, alcoholism, crime, racial tensions, slums, unclean environment, child labor, inadequate labor unions, poor schools, and the danger of war


McKinley tariff (1890)

-shepherded through Congress by President William McKinley
-raised duties on Hawaiian sugar and set off renewed effort to secure the annexation of Hawaii to the US



-Cuban insurgents who sought freedom from colonial Spanish rule
-there destructive tactics threatened American economic interest in Cuban plantations and railroads


Maine (1898)

-American battleship dispatched to keep a friendly watch over cubit in early 1898
-mysteriously blew up in Havana harbor
-even though, later proven an accident, many Americans blamed on the fault of a Spanish submarine mine


Teller amendment (1898)

-a provisio to President William McKinley's war plan that proclaimed to the world that when the US had overthrown Spanish missrule it would give Cuba freedom
-testified to the ostensibly anti imperialist designs of the initial war plans


Rough riders (1898)

-organized by Theodore Roosevelt
-motley regiment of Cuban war volunteers consisting of western cowboys, exconvicts, and ivy leaguers


Anti-imperialist league (1898-1921)

-diverse group formed to protest American colonial oversight in the Philippines
-strongest in the north east, the anti-imperialist league was the largest lobbying organization on the US foreign-policy issue until the end of the 19th-century
-declined in strength after the US signed the Treaty of Paris and especially after hostilities broke out between Filipino nationalist an American forces


Foraker act (1900)

-accorded Puerto Ricans a limited degree of popular government
-sponsored by senator Joseph b. Foraker
-first congressional efforts to provide for governance of territories acquired after the Spanish American war
-it's served as a model for a similar act adopted for the Philippines in 1902


Insular cases (1901-1904)

- A badly divided Supreme Court decreed in these cases that the Constitution did not follow the flag
-Puerto Ricans and Filipinos would not necessarily enjoy all American rights


Platt amendment (1901)

-following its military occupation the US successfully pressured the Cuban government to write this amendment into its constitution
-Limited Cuba's treaty making abilities, controlled it's debt, and stipulated that the US could intervene militarily to restore order when it saw fit


Open door note (1899-1900)

-set of diplomatic letters in which Secretary of State John hay urged the great powers to respect Chinese rights and free and open competition with in their spheres of influence
-these notes established the open door policy


Boxer rebellion (1900)

-uprising in China directed against foreign influence
-paved the way for the 1911 revolution which led to the establishment of the Republic of China


Hay-pauncetote treaty (1901)

-treaty signed between the US and Great Britain giving Americans a free hand to build a canal in Central America
-nullified the Clayton-bulwer treaty


Roosevelt corollary (1904)

-brazen policy of preventative intervention advocated by Theodore Roosevelt and his annual message to Congress in 1904
-stipulated that the US would retain a right to intervene in domestic affairs of Latin American nations in order to restore military and financial order


Root-takaharia agreement (1908)

-agreement by which the US and Japan agreed to respect each other's territorial possessions in the Pacific and to uphold the open door in China
-eased tensions between the US and Japan
-weekend American influence over further Japanese hegemony in China