Flashcards in Unit 5, Chapter 29 Deck (46):
Federal Reserve Act
(1913) An act establishing twelve regional Federal Reserve Banks and a Federal Reserve Board, appointed by the president, to regulate banking and create stability on a national scale in the volatile banking sector.
Clayton Anti-Trust Act
(1914) Law extending the Sherman Anti-Trust Act and exempting labor unions and agricultural org. from antimonopoly constraints.
Federal Trade Commission Act
(1914) During Woodrow's presidency, empowered a commission, appointed by the president, to investigate illegal business practices, in interstate commerce.
Companies that owned part of or all of another companies' stocks in order to extend monopoly control. Often they did not produce goods or services of its own, but only to control another.
Provided for a substantial reduction of rates and enacted an unprecedented, graduated federal income tax. By 1917, revenue had surpassed the receipts from the tariff.
Workingmen's Compensation Act
(1916) Passed under Wilsom, granted assistance to federal civil-service employees during periods of disability.
(1916) Established 8-hr days for all employees on trains involved in interstate commerce, with extra pay for overtime.
(1916) Law according territorial status to the Philippines and promising independence as soon as a "stable gov." could be established.
(1914) An arrest of American sailors by the Mexican Gov. that spurred Wilson to dispatch the Navy to seize the port of Veracruz.though war was avoided, it created high tensions.
Germany and Austria-Hungary, later joined by Turkey and Bulgaria, made up this alliance against the Allies.
Great Britain, Russia, and France, later joined by Italy, Japan, and the US, formed alliance against the Central Powers.
German submarines, named for the German Unterseeboat, proved deadly for Allied ships in the war zone.
British passenger liner that sank after it was torpedoed by Germany on May 7, 1915. There was 1,198 people killed, 128 of them American.
(1917) German foreign secretary Arthur Simmer,an had secretly proposed a German-Mexican alliance against the US. It was intercepted and published publicly, pushing Americans to enter the war.
(1918) Wilson's proposal to ensure peace after WWI, calling for an end to secret treaties, widespread arms reduction, national self-determination, and a new league of nations.
Committee on Public Information
(1917) A Gov. office during WWI known popularly as the Creel Committee for its chairman George Creel, it was dedicated to winning everyday Americans' support for the war effort. It regularly distributed pro war propaganda, "four-minute men" to rally crowds and deliver "patriotic pep".
(1917) A law prohibiting interference with the draft and other acts of national "disloyalty". Together with the Sedition Act (1918), which added penalties for abusing the gov. in writing, it created a climate that was unfriendly to civil liberties.
Schenck v. US
(1919) Supreme Court decision that upheld the Espionage and Sedition Acts, reasoning that freedom of speech could be curtailed when it posed a "clear and present danger" to the nation.
War Industries Board
(1917) Headed by Bernard Baruch, this federal agency coordinated industrial production during WWI, setting production quotas, allocating raw materials, and pushing companies to increase efficiency and eliminate waste.
Industrial Workers of the World
(1905) A radical organization that sought to build "one big Union" and advocated industrial sabotage in defense of that goal. Appealed to migratory workers in agriculture, lumbering, and mining that suffered bad conditions.
Two large waves of Blacks moving from the south to the north and west.
1) During WWI 1.5 million
2) 1940-70 5 million
(1920) Allowed women the right to vote
Shepherd-Towner Maternity Act
(1921) Provided federally financed instruction in maternal and infant health care and expanded the role of gov. in family welfare.
American Expeditinary Forces
Name given to the US Army Force deployed to Europe in WWI commanded by General John J. Pershing and composed mostly of draftees.
Battle of Château-Thierry
(1918) First significant engagement of American troops in WWI -and in any European war.
(Sept. 26-Nov. 11, 1918) Pershing led American troops in this effort to cut Germany railroads that were supplying the western front.
League of Nations
(1919) World organization of national gov'ts. proposed by Wilson and established by the Treaty of Versailles. It worked to facilitate peaceful international cooperation.
Treaty of Versailles
(1919) Signed after six months of negotiation in France's palace, it established the terms of settlement of WWI between Germany and the Allied powers. It blamed Germany for the war and used that as justification for disarmament and saddling Germany with heavy reparation payments to the Allied powers.
Led by senators William Borah and Hiram Johnson, it was a hardcore group of militant isolationist who opposed the League.
-use the presidency to preach it inspirational political sermons
-"triple wall of privilege"
Woodrow Wilson's triple Wall of privilege
1) summoning Congress into a special session in early 1913
2) antiquared and inadequated banking and curency
Federal farm loan act of 1916 (populist)
-made credits available to farmers at low rate of interest
Warehouse act of 1916 (populist)
-authorized loans on the security of stable crops
Laffolette seaman's act of 1915
-aquiring decent treatments and living wage on American merchant ships
Louis d. Brandais
-first Jew to be nominated for the Supreme Court
-Mexican revolutionary general
-One of the most prominent figures of the Mexican Revolution
-secretly proposed a German Mexican alliance
14 points of Wilson
2) freedom of the seas appealed to the Germans as well as Americans
3) removal of economic barriers among nations
5) adjustment of colonial claims
14) foreshadowed the league of Nations
- Head of the committee on public information
-his job was to sell America on the war and sell the world and wilsonian war aims
Eugene v. Debs
-tried under espionage act in 1918 and was sentenced to 10 years in the federal penitentiary
William d. haywood
-leader of industrial workers of the world
- Head of the food administration
-rejected issuing ration cards and used propaganda instead
Henry cabot lodge
- known as the scholar and politics
-senator from Massachusetts
-America, Italy, britain, france
Causes of World War I
1) militarism-countries Florida fine defenses and not trusting each other
2) alliances-Central Powers vs tripleentente-allies
3) imperialism-colonial empires
4)nationalism-belief of self determination