Unit 6, Chapter 36 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 6, Chapter 36 Deck (30):
1

Rock 'n' roll

-crossover musical style that rose to dominance in the 1950s
-merged black rhythm and blues with white Bluegrass and country

2

Checkers speech (1952)

-nationally televised address by vice presidential candidate Richard Nixon during which he defended himself against allegations of corruption

3

Montgomery bus boycott(1952)

-protest by black Alabamains against segregated seating on city buses sparked by Rosa parks refusal to move to the back of the bus
-One of the most foundational movements of the civil rights movement

4

Brown vs board of education of Topeka, Kansas

-landmark supreme court decision that overturned Plessy versus Ferguson and abolish racial segregation in public schools
-rejected the foundation of Jim Crow system
-first step toward the legal end of racial discrimination and a major accomplishment for the civil rights movement

5

Student nonviolent coordinating committee (SNCC)

-Youth organization founded by southern black students in 1960 to promote civil rights
-SNCC coordinated demonstrations, sit ins, and voter registration drives

6

Operation wetback(1954)

-A government program to round up in the port as many as 1 million illegal Mexican migrant workers in the US
-promoted in part by the Mexican government
-reflected burgeoning concerns about non-European immigration to America

7

Federal highway act of 1956

-Federal legislation signed by Dwight D Eisenhower to construct thousands of miles of modern highways in the name of national defense
-officially called the national interstate and Defense highways act
-dramatically increased the move to the suburbs

8

Policy of boldness(1954)

-foreign-policy objective of Dwight D Eisenhower's secretary of state John foster Dulles
-Led to a build up of America is nuclear arsenal to threaten massive retaliation against communist enemies launching the Cold War's arms race

9

Hungarian uprising(1956)

-series of demonstrations and Hungary against the Soviet Union
-highlighted the limitations of Americas power in Eastern Europe

10

Battle of Dien Bien (1954)

-military engagement in French colonial Vietnam in which French forces were defeated by Viet Minh nationalists loyal to Ho Chi Minh

11

International style

-archetypal, post-WWII Modernist architectural style best known for its curtain wall designs of steel and glass corporate high-rises

12

Suez crisis (1956)

-International crisis launch when Egyptian president Gambal Abdel Nasser nationalized the Suez Canal
-Led to a British and French attack on Egypt which failed without aid from the US
-marked in important turning point in the postcolonial middle east and highlighted the rising importance of oil in world affairs

13

Organization of petroleum exporting countries (OPEC)

-cartel compromising middle eastern states and Venezuela first organized in 1960
-aims to control access to and prices of oil, wresting Power from Western oil companies and investors

14

kitchen debate(1959)

-televised exchange in 1957 between Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev an American vice President Richard Nixon
-Nixon one applause for his staunch defense of American capitalism helping lead him to Republican nomination for president in 1960

15

Sputnik(1957)

-soviet satellite first launched into orbit on October 4, 1957
-prompted the US to redouble its space exploration efforts and raised American fears of Soviet superiority

16

Military industrial complex

-term popularized by President Eisenhower in his 1961 farewell address referring to the political and economic ties between arms manufactures, elected officials, and the US Armed Forces that created self-sustaining pressure for high military spending during the Cold War

17

Abstract expressionism

-experimental style of mid 20th century modern Art exemplified by Jackson pollock's spontaneous action paintings created by flinging paint on canvases stretched across studio floor

18

Beat generation

-A small coterie of mid-20th century bohemian writers and personalities, including jack Kerouac, Allen Ginsberg, and William S. Burroughs who bemoaned bourgeois conformity and advocated free form experimentation in life and literature

19

The feminine mystique (1963)

-best-selling book by feminist thinker by Betty Friedan
-challenged women to move beyond the drudgery of suburban housewifery
-helped launch what would become second wave feminism

20

Southern Renaissance

-literary outpouring among mid-20th century southern writers
-marked by a critical appreciation of the regions burdens of history, racism, and conservatism

21

New frontier (1961-1963)

-president kennedy's nickname for his domestic policy agenda
-introduced proposals for the peace corps and efforts to improve education and healthcare

22

Peace corps

-federal agency created by president Kennedy to promote voluntary service by Americans in foreign countries

23

Apollo (1961-1975)

-program of manned space flights run by NASA
-projects highest achievement was putting Apollo II on the moon

24

Berlin Wall

-barrier between east and West Berlin
-vivid symbol of the divide between the communist and capitalist worlds

25

European economic community (EEC)

-free-trade zone in Western Europe created by the treaty of Rome in 1957
-"common market"
-eventually expanded into the European Union

26

Bay of pigs invasion (1961)

-CIA plot to overthrow Fidel Castro by training Cuban exiles to invade and supporting them with American air power
-mission failed

27

Cuban middle crisis (1962)

-standoff between jf know and soviet premier Nikita Khrushchev over Soviet plans to install nuclear weapons in Cuba

28

Freedom riders

-organized mixed race groups who rode interstate buses deep into the south to draw attention to and protest racial segregation
-proved a political and public relations success for the civil rights movement

29

Voters education project (1962-1968)

-effort by SNCC and other civil rights groups to register the south's historically disenfranchised black population

30

March on Washington (1963)

-massive civil rights demonstration in support of Kennedy-backed secure legal protections for American blacks