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Flashcards in Unit 2, Chapter 11 Deck (17)
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Judiciary acts of 1801
(What did it create?)

Passed by the departing federalist congress, it created 16 new judgeships, ensuring a federalist hold on the judiciary


Midnight judges

(1801) federal justices appointed by John Adams during the last days of his presidency
-positions were revoked when the newly elected republican congress repealed the judiciary act


Marbury vs. Madison

(1803) Supreme Court case that established the principal of "Judicial Review"


Judicial review

The idea that the Supreme Court had the final authority to determine constitutionality


Tripolitian war
(How long? Between who?)

(1801-1805) four-year conflict between the American navy and the North African nation of Tripoli over piracy in the Mediterranean
-Jefferson reluctantly deployed American forces, eventually securing a peace treaty with Tripoli


Haitian revolution
(Where? What did this result in?)

(1791-1804) war incited by a slave uprising in French-controlled Saint Dominique
-resulted in the creation of the first independent black republic in the Americas


Louisiana Purchase

(1803) Acquisition of Louisiana Territory from France
-more than doubled the territory of the United States, opening vast tracts for settlement


Corps of discovery

(1804-1806) team of adventurers sent by Thomas Jefferson to explore Louisiana territory and find a water route to the pacific
-led by meriwether Lewis and William Clark who brought back detailed accounts of the west's flora, fauna, and native populations, and their voyage demonstrated the viability of overland travel to the west


Orders in council

(1806-1807) edicts issued by the British crown closing French-owned European ports to foreign shipping
-cut off American merchants from trade with both parties


Revolution of 1800

Electoral victory of democratic republicans over the federalist a, who lost their congressional majority and the presidency
-solidified faith in Americas political system



(1793-1815) Act of forcibly drafting an individual into military service, employed by the British navy against American seamen in times of war against France


Chesapeake affair

(1807) conflict between Britain and the United States that precipitated the 1807 embargo act
-started when a British ship, in search of deserters, fired on the American Chesapeake off the coast of Virginia


Embargo act

(1807) enacted in response to British and French mistreatment of America. Merchants, the act banned the export of all goods from the United States to any foreign port
-placed great strains on the American economy, while only marginally affecting its European targets
-repealed in 1809


Non-intercourse act
(What was it passed alongside?)

(1809) passed alongside the repeal of the embargo act
-reopened trade with a lot but the two belligerent nations, Britain and France


Macon's bill No. 2

(1810) stipulated that if either Britain or France repealed its trade restrictions, the United States would reinstate the embargo act against the non-repealing nation
-aimed resuming peaceful trade with France and Britain


War Hawks

(1811-1812) democratic republican congressmen who pressed James Madison to declare war on Britain
-resented British constraints on American trade and accused the British of supporting Indian attacks against American settlements on the frontier


Battle of Tippecanoe

(1811) resulted in the defeat of Shawnee chief Tenskwatawa, "the prophet," at the hands of William Henry Harrison in the Indiana wilderness