Unit 2, Chapter 9 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 2, Chapter 9 Deck (24):

Old northwest

Territories acquired by the federal government from the states, encompassing land northwest of the Ohio river, east of the Mississippi River, and south of the Great Lakes.
-the well organized management and sale of the land in the territories under the land ordinances of 1785 and 1787 established a precedent for handling future land acquisitions


Articles of confederation

(1781) first American constitution that established the United States as a loose confederation of states under a weak national congress, which was not granted the power to regulate commerce or collect taxes
-republican government (Liberty, Equality, morality)
-no executive branch
-no judicial branch


Land ordinance of 1785

Provided for the sale of land in the old northwest and earmarked the proceeds toward repaying the national debt
- divided Western lands


northwest ordinance

(1787) created a policy for administering the northwest territories
-it included a path to statehood and forbade the expansion of slavery into the territories
-Created five territories


shay's rebellion
(Who? Where? Why?)

(1786) Armed uprising of western Massachusetts debtors seeking lower taxes and an end to property foreclosures.
-Daniel Shay
-Farmers were angered by debt, so they tried to stop their house foreclosures


virginia plan

"large state" proposal for the new constitution, calling for proportional representation in both houses of a bicameral congress
-favored larger states, which prompted smaller states to come back with their own plan for apportioning representation


new jersey plan

(1787) "Small-state plan" put forth at the Philadelphia convention, proposing equal representation by state, regardless of population, in a unicameral legislature.
-small states feared that the more populous states would dominate


Great compromise

(1787) Popular term for the measure that reconciled the New Jersey and virginia plans at the constitutional convention, giving states proportional representation in the house and equal representation in the senate


common law

laws that originate from court rulings and customs, as opposed to legislative statutes


Civic law

Body of unwritten law enacted through legislative statute or constitutional provisions


Three-fifths comprimise

(1787) determined that each slaves would be counted as 3/5 of a person for the purpose of apportioning taxes and representation
-The compromise granted disproportionate politician power to southern slave states


(What do they believe?)

Opponents of the 1787 constitution, they cast the document as antidemocratic, objected to the subordination of the states to the central government and feared encroachment on individuals liberties in the absence of a bill of rights


(What do they believe?)

Proponents of the 1787 constitution, they favored a strong national government, arguing that the checks and balances in the new constitution would safeguard the peoples liberties


The federalist
(Who? What?)

Collection of essays written by John Jay, James Madison, and Alexander Hamilton and published during the ratification debates in New York to lay out the federalist arguments in favor of the new constitution


Society of Cincinnati

(Established in 1783) exclusive hereditary, organization of former officers in the Continental Army


(What happens with this after the revolution?)

Two separate an official state church from its connection with the government
-following the revolution, all the states disestablished the Anglican Church, so some New England states maintained established congregational church as well into the 19th century


Virginia statute for religious freedom

(1786) Measure enacted by the Virginia legislature prohibiting state support for religious institutions and recognizing freedom of worship


Civic virtue

Willingness on the part of citizens to sacrifice personal self-interest for the public good
-deemed a necessary component of a successful republic


Republican motherhood

Ideal of family organization and female behavior after the American revolution that stressed the role of women in guiding family members toward republican virtue


John Dickinson proposal

John Dickinson wanted to see a framework with strong central government which was proposed to the committee
-because of their experience with Great Britain they feared a powerful national governments so his proposal was changed and sent to the states to be ratified in November 1777
-wasn't ratified until March 1781


Newburgh conspiracy

(1783) plan by Continental Army officers to challenge the authority of the Confederation Congress because of their inability to meet its financial obligations to the military


Who thought large republics are good because they prevent factions from rising up?

James Madison


Annapolis Convention

(1786) the goal was to address barriers and to limit trade between the states but they kept fighting so they agreed to meet again a year later


Constitutional convention
(Who? How long? What happened?)

55 delegates meet for 4 months to create the constitution