Unit 2, Chapter 15 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 2, Chapter 15 Deck (29):
1

Deism
(Beliefs?)

(18th century) religious doctrine that emphasized reasoned moral behavior and the scientific pursuit of knowledge
-rejected biblical inerrancy and the divinity of Christ
-believe that a supreme being created the universe

2

Second Great Awakening

(Early 19th century) religious revival characterized by emotional "camp meetings" and widespread conversion
-resulted in thousands of conversions to evangelical religions
-strongest in the northeast and Midwest

3

Burned-over district

Popular name for western New York, a region particularly swept up in the religious fervor of the second great awakening

4

Mormons

Religious followers of Joseph Smith, who founded a communal, oligarchic religious order in the 1830s
-officially known as the church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day
-eventually migrated west and established a flourishing settlement in the Utah desert

5

Lyceum

Public lecture hall that hosted speakers on topics ranging from science to moral philosophy

6

American temperature society

(1826) founding in Boston as a party of a growing effort of 19th century reformers to limit alcohol consumption

7

Maine law of 1851

Prohibited the manufacture and sale of alcohol
-a dozen other states followed Maine's lead
-most statutes provided ineffective and were repealed within a decade

8

Women's Rights convention at Seneca Falls

Gathering of feminine activists in Seneca Falls, New York
-Cady Stanton read "Declaration of Sentiments," stating that "all men and women are created equal"

9

New harmony
(Where? How many people? established by who?)

(1825-1827) communal society of around 1000 members
-established in New Harmony, Indiana by Robert Owen

10

Brook Farm
(Created by who?)

(1841-1846) transcendentalist commune founded by a group of intellectuals, who emphasized living plainly while pursuing the life of the mind
-community fell into debt and dissolved when their communal home burned to the ground in 1864
-created by George bipley

11

Oneida community
(Created by who?)

(Established in the 19th century) one of the most radical utopian communities established, is advocated "free love," birth control, and eugines
-founded by John Humphrey Noyes

12

Utopian communities

Created to make life more perfect
-Reflected a reformist spirit
-brook farm
-Oneida community
-new harmony

13

Shakers

(Established ca. 1770s) called shakers for their lively dance worship, they emphasized simple, communal living and were expected to practice celibacy

14

Federal style

Early national style of architecture that borrowed from neoclassical models and emphasized symmetry, balance, and restraint
-famous builders associated with this style include Charles Bulfinch and Benjamin Latrobe

15

Greek revival

(Popular between 1820 and 1850) inspired by the contemporary Greek independence movement

16

Hudson River school

(Mid-19th century) American artistic movement that produced romantic renditions of local landscapes

17

Ministrel shows

(First popular in the mid-19th century) Variety shows performed by white actors in blackface

18

Romanticism

(Early 19th century) movement in European and American literature and the arts that, in reaction to the hyper-rational enlightenment, emphasized imagination over reason, intuition over calculation, and self over society

19

Transcendentalist

(Mid-19th century) literary and intellectual movement that emphasized individualism and self-reliance, predicted upon a belief that each person possesses an "inner light" that can point the way to truth and direct contact with God
-believed they could create a relation with the universe
-Many lived in seclusion
-rejected specular authority

20

The American scholar
(Who? Where?)

(1837) Ralph Waldo Emerson's Address at Harvard college, in which he declared on intellectual independence from Europe, urging American scholars to develop their own traditions

21

Charles G. Finney

Evangelist preacher in western New York
-believed that the gospel not only saved people, but also reformed society

22

Robert Waldo Emerson

Believed each person was able to create their own original relation with the universe

23

Henry Davis Thoreau

Transcendentalist that created the books "walden" and "on the duty of civil disobedience"

24

Antebellum

Period before the civil war

25

Penitentiary reform

Make asylums and prisons more habitable
-Dorthea Dix

26

Temperance movement

Directed a serious social problem
-goal was to ban the drinking of alcohol

27

Educational reform

-Led by Horace man
-every state offers free public education

28

William Lloyd garrison

Created the first ant-slavery newspaper called the liberator, which called for an immediate and unconditional emancipation of slaves

29

The age of reason

(1794) Thomas Paine's anticlerical treatise that accused churches of seeking to squire "power and profit" and to "enslave mankind"