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-bright young reporters at the turn of the 20th century who won this favorable moniker from Theodore Roosevelt but boosted the circulations of their magazines by writing exposés of widespread corruption in American society



-a progressive reform measure allowing voters to petition to have a law placed on the general ballot
-brought democracy directly to the people and helped foster a shift toward interest group politics and away from old political machines



-progressive reform procedure allowing voters to place a bill on the ballot for final approval, even after being passed by the legislature
-Device that would place laws on the ballot for final approval of the people



-progressive ballot procedure allowing voters to remove elected officials from office
-would enable voters to remove faithless elected officials


Australian ballot

-a system that allows voters privacy in marketing their ballot choices
-introduced in the US during the progressive era to help counteract boss rule


Muller vs oregon (1908)

-landmark supreme court case in which crusading attorney Louis D Brandeis persueded the supreme court to accept constitutionalitu of limiting the hours of women workers
-established a different standard for male and female workers


Lochner vs New York (1905)

-A setback for labor reformers
-supreme court casedecision invalidated a state law establishing a 10 hour work day for bakers
-it said that the "right to free contract" was implicit in the due process clause of the 14th amendment


Elkins act (1903)

-law passed by congress to impose penalties on railroads that offered rebates and customers who accepted them
-did away with railroad rebates
-strengthened the interstate commerce act of 1887


Meat inspection act (1906)

-law passes by congress to subject meat shipped over state lines to federal inspection


Pure food and drug act (1906)

-law passed by congress to impact and regulate the labeling of all foods and pharmaceuticals intended for human consumption
-designed to prevent the adulteration and miss labeling of foods and pharmaceuticals


Hetch hetchy valley

-federal government allowed the city of san francisco to build a dam here un 1913


Dollar diplomacy

-name applied to president taft's critics to the policy of supporting us investments and political interests abroad


Payne-aldrich bill (1909)

-intended to lower tariff rates, but was eventually revised beyond all recognition, retaining high rates on most imports
-passed trying to settle disagreements between the issue of tariffs in the Republican Party


New freedom (1912)

-platform of reforms advocated by woodrow wilson in his first presidential campaign
-includes stronger antitrust legislation to protect small business enterprises from monopolies, banking reform, and tariff reductions
-involved taking action to increase opporitunities for capitalist competition rather than increasing government regulation of large trusts


New nationalism (1912)

-state-interventionist reform program devised by herbert crooy and advocated by theadore roosevelt during his bull moose presidential campaign
-sout to create stronger regulatory agencies to ensure that they opperated to serve tne public interest, not just private gain


Social-justice movement

-people gave more aid to the poor in urban areas


Keating-owen act

-Limited child labor
-overturned 2 years later by hammer vs dagenhart


Hammer vs dagnehart

-child labor laws should be decided by the states


Social gospel

-Reform movement led by Protestant ministers who used religious doctrine to demand better housing and living conditions for the urban poor
-popular in the turn of the 20th century
-promotion of a brand of progressivism based on Christian teachings


Theadore roosevelt

-believed the government should take an active role in directing the economy and business
-also thought the president should provide leadership and ideas
-"trust buster"- tried to defend the Sherman anti-trust act


Upton sinclair

-author of "the jungle," which showed filthy food/butchers


Gifford pinchot

-chief of the forest service
-creation of national parks and forests


William howard taft

-favored free business competition
-lowered Tariffs
-Break up a large businesses by breaking trusts


Mann-elkins act (1910)

-allowed the ICC to regulate railroads and telephones


Henry demaresy Lloyd

-created the book called, "wealth against commonwealth"


Eccentric thorstein veblen

-wrote the book, "the theory of the leisure class"
-urged that social leadership pass from these superfluous Titans to truly useful engineers


Jacob a. Riis

-reporter for the New York sun
-wrote a book about the middle-class Americans in, "how ths other half lives"


Jane adams

-her goal was the abolition of war


Progressives goals

-use the state to curb monopoly power
-to improve the common person's conditions of life and labor


17th amendment

-established the direct election of US senators


Robert m. La follette

-(Fighting bob)
-governor of Wisconsin


Hiram w. Johnson

-governor of California


Florance kelly

-former resident of the hull house
-became the state of Illinois first chief factory inspector and one of the nations leading advocate for improved factory conditions


Frances E. Williard

-founder of the women's Christian temperance league


Square deal (3 c's)

-Control of the corporations
-consumer protection
-conservation of natural resources


Desert land of 1877

-Federal government old arid land cheaply on the condition that the purchaser irrigate the thirsty soil with in three years


Forest reserve act of 1891

-authorized the president to set aside public forests and national parks and other reserves


Carey act of 1894

-distributed federal land to the states on the condition that it be irrigated and settled


John muir

-One of the many conservationist who believed hetch hetchy was a temple of nature that should be held inviolable by the civilizing hand of humanity


Lasting contributions of President Roosevelt

1) greatly enlarged power and prestige of the presidential office
2) helped shape the progressive movement
3) Open the eyes of Americans to the fact that they share the world with other nations


Herbert croly

-Wrote the book, "The promise of American life"
-along with Roosevelt he favored continued consolidation of trust in labor unions


Ida tarbell

-One of the leading muckrakers
-wrote the book, "The history of the standard oil company"