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The principal marketplace of the northwest fur trade
-peaked in the 1820s and 1830s


Ecological imperialism

Historians term for the spoliation of western natural resources through excessive hunting, lodging, mining, and grazing


Ancient order of Hibernians
(Who? What?)

(Mid-nineteenth century) Irish semi secret society that served as a benevolent Organization for the down trodden Irish immigrants in the United States


Molly maguires
(Who? What?)

(1860s-1870s) Secret organization of Irish miners who campaign, at all times violently, against the poor working conditions in the Pennsylvania mines


Tommany hall
(What? Where?)

(Established 1789) powerful New York political machine that primarily through support from the cities immigrants who depended on tomanny hall patronage, partially social services


Know-nothing party

(1850s) nativist political party also known as the American party that emerged in response to an influx of immigrants particularly Irish Catholics


Awful disclosures

(1836) Maria monk's sensational exposé of alleged honors in catholic covents
-reflected nativist fears of Catholic influence


Industrial revolution

Shift toward mass production and mechanization that included the creation of the modern factory system


Cotton gin
(Who? What did this lead do?)

(1793) Eli Whitney's. Invention that sped up the process of harvesting cotton
-made cotton cultivation more profitable revitalizing the southern economy and increasing the importance of slavery in the south


Patent office

Federal government bureau that reviews patent Applications
-patent-legal recognition of a new invention granting exclusive rights to the inventor for a period of years


Limited liability

Legal principle that facilitates Capital investments by offering protection for individual investors who in cases of legal claims or bankruptcy cannot be held responsible for more than the value of their individual shares


Commonwealth vs hunt

(1842) Massachusetts Supreme Court decision that strengthened the labor movement by upholding the legality of unions


Factory girls

Young women employed in the growing factories of the early 19th century
-they labored long hours in difficult conditions living in socially new conditions away from farms and families


Cult of domesticity (true women hood)

Persuasive 19th century cultural creed that venerated the domestic role of women
-it gave married women greater authority to shape home life but limited opportunities outside the domestic sphere


McCormick reaper

(1831) mechanized the harvest of grains, such as wheat, allowing farmers to cultivate larger plots
-fueled the establishment of large-scale commercial agriculture in the Midwest



Privately funded, toll based public road constructed in the early 19th century to facilitate commerce


Erie Canal

(completed 1825) New York State canal that linked Lake Erie to the Hudson River
-dramatically lowered shipping costs, fueling an economic boom in upstate New York and increasing the profitability of farming in the old northwest


Clipper ships

(1840s-1850s) small, swift vessels that gave American shippers an advantage in the carrying of trade


Pony express

(1860-1861) short lived, speedy mail service between Missouri and California that relies on lightweight riders galloping between closely placed posts


Transportation revolution

(19th century) series of transportation innovations-turnpikes, steamboats, canals, and railroads- that linked local and regional markets, creating a national economy


Self reliance

(1841)Ralf Waldo Emerson's popular lecture that reflected the spirit of individualism first Pervasive in American popular culture during the 1830s and 1840s


Market revolution

(18th century to 19th century) transformation from a disaggregated subsistence economy to a national commercial and industrial network
-turnpike (toll road)
-Robert Fulton-steamboat
-Erie Canal (1817-1825)