Unit 3, chapter 22 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 3, chapter 22 Deck (19):

freedman's bureau (1865-1872)

Created to aid newly emancipated slaves
-achievements wee uneven and depended largely on the quality of local administrators


10% reconstruction plan (1863)

introduced by president Lincoln
-it proposed that a state be readmitted to the Union once 10% of its voters had pledged its loyalty to the US and promised to honor emancipation


wade-davis bill

passed by congressional republicans in response to Lincoln's 10% to 50% of the states voters pledge allegiance to the union before being readmitted


Black codes (1865-1866)

laws passed throughout the south to restrict the rights of emancipated blacks
-increased Northerner's criticism of president Johnson's lenient Reconstruction policies


Pacific Railroad act (1862)

helped fund the construction of the Union Pacific transcontinental railroad with the use of land grants and government bonds


civil rights bill (1866)

passed over Johnson's veto
-bill aimed to counteract the black codes by conferring citizenship on African Americans and making it a crime to deprive blacks of their natural rights


14th amendment (ratified 1868)

constitutional amendment that extended civil rights to freedmen and prohibited states from taking away such rights without due process


Reconstruction Act

passed by the newly elected republican congress
-divided the south into 5 military districts, disenfranchised former confederates and required that southern states both ratify the 14th amendment ad write state constitutions guaranteeing freedmen the franchise before gaining readmission to the union


15th amendment (ratified 1870)

prohibited states from denying citizens the franchise on account of race
-disappointed feminists, who wanted the amendment to include guarantees for women's suffrage


Ex parte milligan (1866)

civil war-era case in which the supreme court ruled that military tribunals could not be used to try civilians if civil courts were open



southern democratic politicians who sought to wrest control from republicain regimes in the south after reconstruction


women's loyal league (1863-1865)

Women's organization formed to help bring about an end to the civil war and encourage congress to pass a constitutional amendment prohibiting slavery


union league

reconstruction era African American organization that worked to educate southern blacks about civic life
-campaigned on behalf of republican candidates and recruited local militias to protect blacks from white initiation



derogatory term for pro-union southerners whom southern democrats accused of plundering the resources of the south in collusion with republican governments after the civil war



pejorative used b southern whites to describe northern businessmen and politicians who came to the south after the civil war to work on reconstruction projects or invest in southern infrastructure


Klu Klux Klan

an extremist, paramilitary, right-wing secret society founded in the mid-19th century and revived during the 1920s


force acts (1870-1871)

passed by congress following a wave of Klu Klux Klan violence
-banned membership of KKK, prohibited the use of intimidation to prevent blacks from voting, and gave the US military the right to enforce the acts


tenure of office act (1867)

required the president to seek approval from the senate before removing appointees


seward's folly (1867)

popular term for secretary of state William Seward's purchase of Alaska from Russia