Flashcards in 3.1.4 Peer influences (Add) Deck (20):
give a statistic demonstrating the role of pressure in addiction:
to fit in 55% of teens tried drugs because they felt pressured by their friends
give an example of the role of observation and imitation in addiction:
teens would give up using a cell phone while driving if their friends did
in reality peer influences on addiction are more likely to involve what?
what is SLT?
social learning theory
SLT by Bandura makes use of which behaviourist and cognitive ideas?
people learn from others - observation & modelling
cognitive - attention and memory
(SLT) what are models?
individuals that are observed and imitated
(SLT) give examples of models:
family, friends, celebrities, tv characters
(SLT) children pay attention to and imitate models, what do they respond to?
the reinforcement and punishment they receive for behaving in that manner
(SLT) what does vicarious reinforcement involve?
learning behaviour through observing rewards and punishments rather than directly experiencing them
(SLT) give an example of vicarious reinforcement:
child may watch their sibling be rewarded for a behaviour making them more likely to copy that behaviour
(SLT) if a friend is engaging in addictive behaviour what are we likely to do?
observe and imitate it
(SLT) if we see a friend being rewarded e.g. attention for addictive behaviour, what are we likely to do?
imitate the behaviour to get the same rewards
what are perceived social norms?
rules governing socially acceptable behaviour
what are descriptive norms?
our perception of how much others are engaging in addictive behaviours
are descriptive norms accurate?
not always - based on perceptions
what are injunctive norms?
our perceptions of the levels of approval and disapproval people receive from engaging in addictive behaviour
what do descriptive and injunctive norms have an influence upon?
whether we decide to engage in the same addictive behaviour
what is a lot of research into perceived social norms focused on? why is this an issue?
college students and alcohol
not generalizable - one group, one addiction
what did Borsari & Carey find regarding students and alcohol?
many students overestimate drinking behaviours (d. norms) and approval of drinking (I. norms)