Flashcards in 3.4.1 Psychology Is A Science (Con) Deck (42):
What is a controversy?
Prolonged dispute or debate concerning a matter of opinion
What does a controversy not have?
A clear answer/resolution
(Benefits) What is science concerned with?
What we know to be the truth
(Benefits)We attach considerable importance to science as a way of what?
Distinguishing what is true and real
(Benefits) Science gives us a body of knowledge we accept to be what?
(Benefits) why do psychologists want psychology to be recognised as a science?
They want their research to be deemed trustworthy and their applications to be accepted
(characteristics) the most fundamental characteristic of a science is reliance on what?
empirical methods of observation and investigation
(characteristics) what are empirical methods?
conducting research to provide evidence
(characteristics) science is what o?
objective - scientific observation under objective conditions
(characteristics) scientific research involves what c?
control - it takes place under controlled conditions with control over variables
(characteristics) scientific findings and investigations are what r?
replicable - consistent
(characteristics) science is what f?
falsifiable - we can falsify hypothesis - prove things wrong
(characteristics) science involves making testable predictions about what is expected when?
under specific conditions
(characteristics) what method is ideal for conducting scientific psychological research?
(characteristics) why are lab experiments ideal?
test falsifiable hypotheses
conducted under objective conditions
replicable methods and findings
high control over variables
(characteristics) what other scientific methods does psychological research use?
(methodologies) what methodologies does the biological approach use?
lab experiments e.g. double blind placebo trials
quasi experiments e.g. raine et al
(methodologies) what methodologies does the psychodynamic approach use?
case studies e.g. Anna O
(methodologies) what methodologies does the behaviourist approach use?
(methodologies) what methodologies does the cognitive approach use?
lab experiments e.g. Loftus & Palmer
(methodologies) what methodologies does the positive approach use?
meta analysis & reviews e.g. myres & diener literature review
correlational analysis e.g. happiness & age
observations via beepers/ pagers
surveys e.g. happiness of americans
(change) with the psychodynamic approach (1900) what approach and research methods were favoured for understanding human behaviour?
qualitative methods e.g. case studies like anna O, little Hans, Bowlby
(change) why did the idiographic approach fall out of favour?
rise of behaviourism (1913)
(change) with the behaviourist approach what did psychologists seek to do?
quantify behaviour permitting statistical analysis e.g. skinners box
(change) the rise of behaviourism saw the decline in the idiographic approach, replaced by what?
(change) what does nomothetic mean?
aims to create general laws of behaviour e.g. reinforcement and punishment
(change) how long did the nomothetic approach to understanding behaviour continue?
up to 1990s - cognitive and biological approach
(change) when did the first psychology lab open?
(change) today what methods do psychologists like to use?
combination of quantitative and qualitative techniques
(change) give an example of a mix of qualitative and quantitative methods:
thematic content analysis
used when analysing details from case studies
(change) today psychologists like to use triangulation, what is this?
using a variety of research methods to check the validity of findings
(change) give an example of triangulation:
following a questionnaire with an observation
(IS a science) give an example of psychological research that was falsifiable:
initial dopamine hypothesis proposed schizophrenics had too much dopamine
falsified by administering drugs which reduce levels of dopamine finding no effect on individuals with negative symptoms
(IS a science) why is it a benefit that research is falsifiable?
developments in understanding
e.g. falsification of initial dopamine hypothesis led to development of more effective atypical drugs
(IS a science) give an example of psychological research conducted under objective conditions:
skinner's box on operant conditioning was conducted under objective conditions to investigate effects of reinforcement and punishment on behaviour
(IS a science) why is it beneficial if research is objective?
seen to be scientific and trustworthy
(IS a science) give an example of a replicable piece of psychological research:
milgram's study of obedience
replications found high levels of obedience across sex & nationality
(IS a science) why is it a benefit if research is replicable?
consistency allows for cause and effect relationships to be established
trustworthy evidence to support explanations
(IS a science) give an example of controlled psychological research:
Watson and Rayners controlled observation on little albert - high control over variables e.g. lighting
(IS a science) why is it a benefit if research is controlled?
higher control, replication, consistency in findings allows cause and effect relationships to be established, therefore findings are trusted
(IS a science) give an example of empirical psychological research:
loftus & palmer - research on how leading questions affect memory recall