3.4.1 Psychology Is A Science (Con) Flashcards Preview

A Level Psychology > 3.4.1 Psychology Is A Science (Con) > Flashcards

Flashcards in 3.4.1 Psychology Is A Science (Con) Deck (42):
1

What is a controversy?

Prolonged dispute or debate concerning a matter of opinion

2

What does a controversy not have?

A clear answer/resolution

3

(Benefits) What is science concerned with?

What we know to be the truth

4

(Benefits)We attach considerable importance to science as a way of what?

Distinguishing what is true and real

5

(Benefits) Science gives us a body of knowledge we accept to be what?

Trustworthy

6

(Benefits) why do psychologists want psychology to be recognised as a science?

They want their research to be deemed trustworthy and their applications to be accepted

7

(characteristics) the most fundamental characteristic of a science is reliance on what?

empirical methods of observation and investigation

8

(characteristics) what are empirical methods?

conducting research to provide evidence

9

(characteristics) science is what o?

objective - scientific observation under objective conditions

10

(characteristics) scientific research involves what c?

control - it takes place under controlled conditions with control over variables

11

(characteristics) scientific findings and investigations are what r?

replicable - consistent

12

(characteristics) science is what f?

falsifiable - we can falsify hypothesis - prove things wrong

13

(characteristics) science involves making testable predictions about what is expected when?

under specific conditions

14

(characteristics) what method is ideal for conducting scientific psychological research?

lab experiments

15

(characteristics) why are lab experiments ideal?

test falsifiable hypotheses
conducted under objective conditions
replicable methods and findings
empirical
high control over variables

16

(characteristics) what other scientific methods does psychological research use?

controlled observations
brain scans

17

(methodologies) what methodologies does the biological approach use?

brain scans
lab experiments e.g. double blind placebo trials
genetic studies
psychological measures
quasi experiments e.g. raine et al

18

(methodologies) what methodologies does the psychodynamic approach use?

controlled studies
case studies e.g. Anna O
interviews
PET scans
dream analysis

19

(methodologies) what methodologies does the behaviourist approach use?

controlled observations
lab experiments

20

(methodologies) what methodologies does the cognitive approach use?

lab experiments e.g. Loftus & Palmer
interviews
questionnaires
field experiments

21

(methodologies) what methodologies does the positive approach use?

meta analysis & reviews e.g. myres & diener literature review
correlational analysis e.g. happiness & age
observations via beepers/ pagers
surveys e.g. happiness of americans

22

(change) with the psychodynamic approach (1900) what approach and research methods were favoured for understanding human behaviour?

idiographic approach
qualitative methods e.g. case studies like anna O, little Hans, Bowlby

23

(change) why did the idiographic approach fall out of favour?

rise of behaviourism (1913)

24

(change) with the behaviourist approach what did psychologists seek to do?

quantify behaviour permitting statistical analysis e.g. skinners box

25

(change) the rise of behaviourism saw the decline in the idiographic approach, replaced by what?

nomothetic approach

26

(change) what does nomothetic mean?

aims to create general laws of behaviour e.g. reinforcement and punishment

27

(change) how long did the nomothetic approach to understanding behaviour continue?

up to 1990s - cognitive and biological approach

28

(change) when did the first psychology lab open?

1879

29

(change) today what methods do psychologists like to use?

combination of quantitative and qualitative techniques

30

(change) give an example of a mix of qualitative and quantitative methods:

thematic content analysis
used when analysing details from case studies

31

(change) today psychologists like to use triangulation, what is this?

using a variety of research methods to check the validity of findings

32

(change) give an example of triangulation:

following a questionnaire with an observation

33

(IS a science) give an example of psychological research that was falsifiable:

initial dopamine hypothesis proposed schizophrenics had too much dopamine
falsified by administering drugs which reduce levels of dopamine finding no effect on individuals with negative symptoms

34

(IS a science) why is it a benefit that research is falsifiable?

developments in understanding
e.g. falsification of initial dopamine hypothesis led to development of more effective atypical drugs

35

(IS a science) give an example of psychological research conducted under objective conditions:

skinner's box on operant conditioning was conducted under objective conditions to investigate effects of reinforcement and punishment on behaviour

36

(IS a science) why is it beneficial if research is objective?

seen to be scientific and trustworthy

37

(IS a science) give an example of a replicable piece of psychological research:

milgram's study of obedience
replications found high levels of obedience across sex & nationality

38

(IS a science) why is it a benefit if research is replicable?

consistency allows for cause and effect relationships to be established
trustworthy evidence to support explanations

39

(IS a science) give an example of controlled psychological research:

Watson and Rayners controlled observation on little albert - high control over variables e.g. lighting

40

(IS a science) why is it a benefit if research is controlled?

higher control, replication, consistency in findings allows cause and effect relationships to be established, therefore findings are trusted

41

(IS a science) give an example of empirical psychological research:

loftus & palmer - research on how leading questions affect memory recall

42

(IS a science) why is it a benefit research is empirical?

scientific knowledge deemed trustworthy and real life applications e.g. cognitive interview to gain more accurate EWT

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