3.1.1 Characteristics of Addiction Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 3.1.1 Characteristics of Addiction Deck (30):

rather than talk about addiction what do the WHO prefer to talk about?



what does "dependence" involve?

strong desire, issues controlling use, withdrawal symptoms, tolerance and continuation


the word addiction comes from the Latin "addicere" what does this mean? why does addiction have this meaning

to sentence
like a prison sentence you cant escape the addiction you are enslaved to it


when is a behaviour classed as an addiction?

when it is repetitive, hard to stop, provides short term happiness and relapses occur


what are some types of addiction people can have?

exercise addict
food addict
gambling addict
smoking addict
drug addict
alcohol addict
shopping addict


what does an addiction cover and who can it affect?

a wide range of behaviours
can affect those of all sexes, races and ages


summarise how Marlatt et al explained addiction:

repetitive behaviour
can cause health, personal and social problems
experience relapses and loss of control
immediate gratification
long term implications


what did Walter's define addiction as being?

the persistent and repetitious enactment of behaviour


what are the 4 p's Walter referred to?

perceived loss of control
preoccupation with behaviour
progression to higher tolerance
persistence despite negative consequences


what were the 6 criteria Griffiths identified if a behaviour was to be seen as addictive?

Mood modification
Withdrawal symptoms


what does Salience involve?

the activity becoming the most important thing in the individuals life - dominating their thoughts and feelings


give an example of salience in relation to gambling:

a gambler will spend time gambling or working out how to get the money to gamble


which of Walter's 4 P's does salience link to?

preoccupation with behaviour


what is mood modification?

instant gratification from the activity leading the individual to feel a buzz or numbing
makes the person repeat the behaviour despite negative consequences to get the same buzz


give an example of mood modification in relation to drugs:

a drug addict will keep doing drugs for the buzz that they get


which of Walter's 4 P's does mood modification link to?

Persistence despite negative consequences


what is tolerance?

the person increasing the amount of activity they do in order to experience the same feeling


give an example of tolerance in relation to alcohol:

an alcoholic will drink more in order to get the same feeling


which of Walter's 4 P's does tolerance link to?

progression to a higher tolerance


what do withdrawal symptoms involve?

a person experiencing unpleasant feelings and physical effects when the activity is reduced or stopped


give an example of withdrawal symptoms in relation to a shopping addiction:

experiencing negative feelings or emotions when they cant shop and get the gratification


which of the 4 P's does withdrawal symptoms link to?

progression and persistence


what does conflict involve?

conflict occurs between the individual and others as a result of the addictive behaviour, yet the individual persists despite the negative consequences


give an example of conflict in relation to smoking:

family members may conflict with the individual due to the health problems smoking causes


which of the 4 P's does conflict link to?

persistence despite negative consequences


what does relapse involve?

an individual going back repeatedly to a particular behaviour even after being without


give an example of relapse in relation to food addiction:

a person may loose a lot of weight and then go back to the addictive behaviour (eating)


Michael is addicted to gambling, how does his addiction link to the biological approach?

neurotransmitters - high levels of dopamine are associated with addiction, this makes him feel good so he keeps gambling to get the feeling


Michael is addicted to gambling, how does his addiction link to the psychodynamic approach?

Michael has a dominant id which requires instant gratification as a result Michael keeps gambling, he may also use the ego defence mechanism of denial


Michael is addicted to gambling, how does his addiction link to the behaviourist approach?

operant conditioning - positive reinforcement, Michael gets a mood boost when he gambles this positive feeling moves him to repeat the behaviour

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