Flashcards in 2.2.1 Observations (non experimental) Deck (18):
what do observations involve?
the precise and objective measurement of naturally occurring behaviour
you can use a video camera to record behaviour in an observation, what is a strength of this?
you can look back- more accurate as not reliant on memory
what are some weaknesses of using a video camera to record behaviour?
invasion of privacy
lack of consent to being filmed
what is event sampling?
it involves the researcher operationalizing the behaviour they are interested into behavioural categories, they then keep a tally of when the behaviour occurs
what is an issue with event sampling?
other behaviour that is important or interesting may be ignored due to not having a category
what is time sampling?
alternative observational sampling technique - involves observing behaviour for a set period of time and then spend the remaining time making notes
what are potential issues with time sampling?
what are non participant naturalistic observations?
recording spontaneously occurring behaviour in the participants own natural environment
what are strengths on non participant naturalistic observations?
high ecological validity
lack of demand characteristics
what are weaknesses of non participant naturalistic observations?
unable to consent to being watched
what are non participant controlled observations?
the recording of spontaneously occurring behaviour under conditions contrived by the researcher
what are some strengths of non participant controlled observations?
researchers have control of extraneous variables
easier to replicate
what are some weaknesses of non participant controlled observations?
lack of ecological validity
what is a participant observation?
researcher becomes involved in the everyday life of the subjects with or without their knowledge
what is a strength of participant observations?
high in ecological validity - first hand experience
what is a weakness of participant observations?
demand characteristics (overt)
potential risk to researcher (gangs)
what is a covert observation?
the participants are unaware of the researcher being a researcher