1.3.1 Conditioning Assumption (Be) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 1.3.1 Conditioning Assumption (Be) Deck (44):
1

What is conditioning?

Learning

2

What are the two types of conditioning?

Classical conditioning
Operant conditioning

3

In short, what is classical conditioning?

Learning through association

4

In short what is operant conditioning?

Learning through reinforcement

5

What does classical conditioning refer to?

The conditioning of reflexes

6

What are reflexes? (CC)

Involuntary responses to stimuli

7

In classical conditioning how are new behaviours acquired?

By learning to associate new stimuli with automatic reflexes

8

When stimuli and reflexes are repeatedly paired what do we learn to do? (CC)

Associate them and a learned response is produced

9

When will the learned response occur after classical conditioning?

Automatically when exposed to stimuli

10

Who first explained classical conditioning? When?

Pavlov
1902

11

In the 1890s what did Russian psychologist Ivan Pavlov look at? (CC)

Salivation in dogs in response to being fed

12

What did Pavlov initially notice? (CC)

His dogs began to salivate when he entered the room even when he wasn't bringing food

13

What was the unconditioned stimulus UCS? (CC)

Food

14

What unconditioned response (UCR) occurred when the dog was presented with the UCS (food)?

Salivation - reflex

15

What does this assumption say?

Behaviour is learned through conditioning

16

What was the neutral stimulus? (NS)

The bell

17

What occurred before classical conditioning when the bell rang? (CC)

No response - no salivation

18

During conditioning what did Pavlov associate? (CC)

The bell (NS) and food (UCS)

19

What response did the bell and food cause? (CC)

The unconditioned response of salivation

20

After conditioning what occurred when the bell rang and the food was removed? (CC)

Conditioned response of salivation

21

What did the neutral stimulus (bell) become after conditioning? (CC)

The conditioned stimulus

22

What can classical conditioning be used to explain?

Anxiety disorders such as phobias

23

How would phobias be explained in terms of classical conditioning?

If you have a bad experience with an object/situation you will learn to associate that object with fear

24

What is operant conditioning?

Behaviour can be explained in terms of reinforcement

25

What is reinforcement? (OC)

Rewards and punishment

26

How was operant conditioning demonstrated?

Skinner with his skinners box

27

What is an operant conditioning chamber?

A laboratory apparatus used to study animal behaviour

28

What happened in experiment 1 of skinners box? (OC)

•Every time the animal pressed the lever a food pellet was released
•So the amount of lever presses increased

29

What was skinners experiment 1 an example of? (OC)

Positive reinforcement

30

What is positive reinforcement? (OC)

We will repeat actions that produce reinforcers (rewards)

31

Give examples of reinforcers: (OC)

Money
Food
Praise
Attention

32

Give an example of how positive reinforcers may be used for humans: (OC)

Money for exam results encouraging you to revise more

33

What happened in experiment 2 of skinners box? (OC)

•An electric shock passed through the chamber
•when the animal pressed the lever the shock stopped
•number of lever presses increased

34

What was experiment 2 of skinners box an example of? (OC)

Negative reinforcement

35

What is negative reinforcement? (OC)

We will repeat actions that remove unpleasant things

36

Give an example of negative reinforcement (drugs): (OC)

• drug addict
• comes off drugs
• experiences unpleasant withdrawal effects
• goes back to drugs to stop effects

37

Give an example of negative reinforcement (mothers): (OC)

• mother feeds hungry baby as it stops the unpleasant sound of the baby crying

38

What happened in experiment 3 of skinners box? (OC)

• every time the animal pressed the lever an electric shock was produced
• number of lever presses decreased

39

What was experiment 3 of skinners box an example of? (OC)

Punishment

40

What is punishment? (OC)

We will stop actions that cause unpleasant things

41

What can punishment be? (OC)

Positive or negative

42

What is positive punishment? Give an example: (OC)

• The start of something nasty
• e.g. Smacking a child for bad behaviour

43

What is negative punishment? Give an example: (OC)

• the end of something nice
• e.g. Taking away phone, TV etc for bad behaviour

44

What can both classical conditioning and operant conditioning be used to explain?

Relationship formation

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